Henry VII (1485-1509)


Consolidation of power (+)

- Learned in Brittany that rulers should never let themselves go and should maintain control 24/7

- Succeeded in Battle of Bosworth, Stanleys joined him and Richard was hacked to death

- Crowned October 1485

- Erased Richard's laws, accussed Richard's supporters of treason and executed them

- Married Elizabeth of York, unifying the country and had son, Arthur (1486)

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Consolidation of power (-)

- Had to flee to Brittany in 1471 when political wheel turned again

- Henry was only strong Lancastrain claim, but still very weak

- Had lots of opposition against him

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Government (+)

- Shrunk number of nobles from 62 to 42

- Used the Order of the Garter as an alternative to granting noble titles

- Never tried to buy loyalty through patronage

- Bonds and recognisances (paying money as security for behaviour) --> Raised revenue for the crown

- Patronage not often used to reduce powerful families

- Chamber (Henry kept direct supervision of finances, personally signing every finance sheet) --> Very efficient and had control

- Attended most Central Gov meetinfs

- Increased control over Wales and English Pale (in Ireland)

- Parliament passed AofA and ensured social discipline

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Government (-)

- Used Bonds and recognisances as financial threat

- Exchequer (traditional finance department) --> slow and inefficient, not under Henry's direct control

- Parliamentary tax (used in national emergency) --> Very unpopular and didn't raise much

- PArliament met infrequently

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Foreign Policy (+)

- Immediately established truces with France, Scotland, Brittany and HRE

- Foreign support for pretenders provoked Henry into more active FP so could monitor activities of allies

- Acted as mediator in battle between Brittany and France, renewed French truce

- Treaty of Medina del Campo --> marriage agreement, agreed to help win back territory lost ot France

- Treaty of Etaples --> France to give Eng compensation (approx 5% of national income) + promised to not support anymore pretenders

- Remained neutral in Italian wars with France

- Tried to remain diplomatic with Scot despite loss of land

- Befriended Kildare, Warbeck not initially supported

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Foreign Policy (-)

- Margaret supported all pretenders + supplied 2000 mercenaries to help Simnel

- In dilemma with France and Brittany (wanted to support both and protect Eng)

- Irish supported Simnel, Kildare didn't act against Warbeck, Eng control over Ire barely grew at all

- Scots attacked Eng captured towns (Berwick and Dunbar)

- Scots showed support fot Warbeck --> Henry launched full-scale invasion to fight back

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Society (+)

- Stafford uprising --> No foreign support, was stopped by Henry setting his forces, Stafford executed

- Simnel --> Stopped by Henry exhiniting real Earl of Warwick, battle fought with 12000-8000 victory to Henry. John de la Pole killed.

- Warbeck --> persuaded to give up and was hanged

- Suffolk --> Given up by Duke of Burgundy as long as he kept his life. Henry imprisoned him as well as other key people.

- Yorkshire uprising --> no foreign support, Henry refused negotiation and Earl of Northumberland was killed, Earl of Surrey was left in North.

- Cornish uprising --> no foreign support, 1000 rebels killed in Barrie

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Society (-)

- Stafford --> attempt for yorkist to gain status, internal support from Margaret of York and Lovell, planned to seize Worcester, Lovell escaped

- Simnel --> Yorksits wanted to get rid of Tudor power, internal support from John de la Pole, Lovell and Richard Symonds, Foreign support from Margaret of Burgundy, Simnel claimed to be Earl of Warwick so gets crowned

Warbeck --> Claimed to be Duke of Yotk who was imprisoned, internal support from Yorkists, foreign support from Charles VIII of France and Margaret of Burgundy, James IV gave Warbeck support through scottish invasion

Suffolk --> King refused to elevate him, internal support from Richard de la Pole, foreign support from Duke of Burgundy, Suffolk fled to Burgundy

Yorkshire --> heavily taxed, internal support from Earl of Northumberland and Yorkshire crowds

Cornish --> refused to conribute to Scot war, Dudley+15,000 marched to London

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Economic development (+)

- Treaty of Etaples (FRANCE) trade restrictions reduced

- Treaty of Medina del Campo (SPAIN) equal trading rights and fair customs rate

- Intercursus Magnus (BURGUNDY) Eng merchants could trade with Burg without paying customs except in Flanders, signed after dropped support for Warbeck

- Intercursus Malus (BURGUNDY) Signed when Philip shipwrecked and needed support, extremely beneficial to England

- Confirm Hansa Rights - confirmed existing trading rights

- Brittany commercial agreement

- Florence/Venice Trade agreement over English wool imports, cutting Venice from wool trade since they imposed harsh duties on Eng goods

- Cloth responsible for 90% value of Eng exports, increased profitability

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Economic development (-)

- French Restrictions restored due to Brittany support

- Spanish Navigation Act (Damaging effect on trade for England)

- English cloth ban (Banned cloth trade to burg as a result of their support for Warbeck)

- Overall chipped away at Hansa privilieges

- Income declined after black death of 1300s

- Increasing population from 1480s-90s

- Decreased profitability of crop farming

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