The Tudors- part 1

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Henry VII's reign (1485-1509)

  • Security and Succession
    • marriage to Elizabeth of York- end wars of the roses
    • Spanish princess Catherine of Aragon as wife for Arthur, his heir
    • crush Yorkist opponents e.g. Lambert Simnel, Perkin Warbeck, Edmund de la Pole
  • Foreign Affairs and Diplomacy
    • avoid expensive wars, no ambitious plans, protects England
    • marriage between Arthur and Catherine, marriage alliance of Henry and Catherine
  • King and Nobility
    • Bonds and recognisances keep nobles in check- contracts of loyalty, breached=fined
    • swelled crown's coffers
    • establish Council Learned in the Law- oversee bonds, defend king's position, receive all money owed
  • Success?
    • filled crown's coffers, end civil war, protect England, keep nobles in check
    • too harsh on nobility= unliked, England not really main contender in Europe yet
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The Popes

  • Innocent VIII (1484-1492)
  • Alexander VI (1492-1503)
  • Pius III (1503)
  • Julius II (1503-1513)
  • Leo X (1513-1521)
  • Adrian VI (1522-1523)
  • Clement VII (1523-1534)
  • Paul III (1534-1549)
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The Monarchs

  • England
    • Henry VII (1485-1509)
    • Henry VIII (1509...)
  • Spain
    • Ferdinand (...1516)
    • Charles V (1517...)
  • France
    • Louis XII (...1515)
    • Francis I (1515...)
  • HRE
    • Maximillian I (...1519)
    • Charles V (1519...)
  • Scotland
    • James IV (...1513)
    • James V (1513...)
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Henry VII vs Henry VIII

  • Foreign Policy
    • Henry VIII want chivalry and England to have its claim on France
    • he wanted wars and glory like King Arthur and Henry V at Agincourt
    • didn't want to replicate his father's foreign policy
  • Personnel
    • removed his father's counsellors that were unpopular with nobles e.g. Edmund Dudley and Richard Empson from Council Learned of the Law executed on treason= popularity
    • 1510 appoint Wolsey, alot younger, for a more modern take as Royal Almoner
  • Marriage
    • his father had delayed marriage with Catherine for negotiations with Ferdinand
    • Henry wastes no time to cement an Anglo Spanish alliance= ready to invade France
  • Renaissance
    • 17 when he came to throne, young, athletic
    • poetry, languages, arts, religion and philosophy
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England and the rest of Europe in 1509

  • Scotland- long history of emnity, greatest threat was Auld Alliance with France which could be revived if war between either of them and England
  • Netherlands- vital to England's economy, centre of wool trade, controlled by Hapsburgs
  • Holy Roman Empire- elected Emperor, could hold claim over Italy= clash with France
  • Italy- number of independent states, Emperor laid claim over but Pope obstructed this, French and Spanish monarchs had ambitions for it= threat to Henry that other nation's successes might outshine his
  • Spain- Hapsburgs, unified under Isabella of Castille and Ferdinand of Aragon= henry's best chance of alliance, strategically well placed to invade France
  • France- Valois, traditional enemy, Agincourt and historical claims over it, size and wealth far exceeded England's, Auld Alliance with Scotland
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Foreign Policy aims- Henry v Wolsey

  • Henry's aims
    • glory through conquest
    • require ally
      • obvious choice was Spain
      • Henry VII had forged an alliance
      • Catherine had married his brother
      • strategic to invade France
    • ensure Scottish border was controlled
    • make England a leading country in Europe
  • Wolsey's aims
    • to serve Henry's wishes
    • to place England at heart of European affairs
    • to achieve glory and prestige, cheaply and peacefully
    • be recognised by Pope and promoted, possibly become pope eventually 
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Who to side with? Spain or France (1520)

  • France
    • jealous of Charles' role as HRE
    • Spain had left England isolated, humiliated several times
  • Spain
    • traditionally anti-french, Francophobia within England
    • England rely heavily on trade with Low Countries
    • Papal Policy was anti-French because of expansionist ideas
    • Catherine was Charles' aunt
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Foreign Policy (1509-1514) Significance of Victory

  • achieve glory by conquest
  • England seen as a force to be reckoned with
  • Peace with France, pension, Mary and Louis married
  • Scottish border secured with Margaret as regent

BUT

  • treasury exhausted that his father spent years building up
  • Tournai expensive to garrison and rebuild
  • Therouanne and Tournai only strategically help Maximillian
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Foreign Policy Events

  • League of Cambrai (1509)                                   . Treaty of More (1525)
  • Anglo-French Truce (1510 )                                 . League of Cognac (1526)
  • Holy League (1511)                                              . Treaty of Westminister (1527)
  • 1st French War (1512)                                          . The Sack of Rome (1527)
  • Anglo-Spanish Alliance (1512)                             . Treaty of Amiens (1527)
  • Battle of the Spurs (1513)                                     . Peace of Cambrai (1528-1529)
  • Battle of Flodden (1513)
  • Anglo French Peace Treaty (1514)
  • Multiple betrayals and failures (1515-1517)
  • Treaty of London (1518)
  • Field of the Cloth of Gold (1520)
  • Defender of the Faith (1521)
  • Treaty of Bruges (1521)
  • 2nd French War (1522-1523)
  • Amicable Grant (1525)
  • Battle of Pavia (1525)
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Foreign Policy (1509-1514) Successes

  • Holy League (1511)
    • formed by Pope Julius II
    • Spain Venice Papacy England to target France
  • Battle of the Spurs (1513)
    • Henry led army of 30,000
    • Capture of Therouanne (for Maximillian HRE)
    • Capture of Tournai (England to garrison= expensive)
    • named due to speed of French retrea, some nobles captured and ransomed
  • Battle of Flodden (1513)
    • James IV take advantage of Henry's in France, Earl of Surrey ounumbered but won
    • James IV and nine earls deas, 10,000 scottish troops dead
    • Margaret Tudor act as regent while James V still child
  • Anglo French peace treaty (1514)
    • continued possession of Tournai
    •  pension from France
    • Mary Tudor marry Louis XII
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Foreign Policy (1509-1514) Failures

  • League of Cambrai (1509)
    • France, Spain, HRE, Papacy target Venice
    • England not involved
  • Anglo French truce (1510)
    • manipulated by his council into extending truce his father made
    • didn't get war he wanted
  • 1st French War and Anglo-Spanish alliance (1512)
    • Spain's troops never arrive to assist English
    • Fedinand use Henry as diversion to capture Navarre
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Foreign Policy (1515-1517)

  • 1515
    • Francis crowned with successes at Marignano and negotiates right to appoint bishops
    • Wolsey creates anti French alliance with HRE Spain, Rome, Venice
    • Wolsey pays Maximillian money to repel French in Italy, he accepts money then defects to France
  • 1516
    • Ferdinand dies, Charles doesn't want war with France = no need of England
  • 1517
    • Maximillian joins Spain and France's alliance= England isolated and humiliated
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Foreign Policy (1518-1521) Successes

  • The Treaty of London (1518)
    • Wolsey hijack's Pope's idea of crusade against Ottoman Turks
    • make England centre of European affairs, Mary betrothed to Dauphin
    • committ powers into treaty of universal peace
    • Wolsey becomes "Legate a Latere"= huge success for him
  • The Field of the Cloth of Gold (1520)
    • display of Anglo-French Friendship, no agreements signed
    • 2 weeks of jousting, feasts, boxing match= emnity
    • France and Spain fight over England as ally= important but nothing really achieved
  • Defender of the Faith (1521)
    • international recognition and prestige from his Assertio Septum given by Pope Leo
  • Treaty of Bruges (1521)
    • alliance between England and Spain, secret until next French payment paid
    • if Francis refuse peace to Charles Henry to declare war
    • Charles compensate pension, Mary betrothed to Charles
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Foreign Policy (1522-1529) Successes

  • Battle of Pavia (1525)
    • Francis beaten by Charles and 10,000 soldiers killed
    • Francis trapped under his horse and captured
    • spoils divided between Henry, Charles and Duke of Bourbon
    • sees he could possibly become King of France, falls apart- Spain peace with France
  • Treaty of More (1525)
    • switch in alliance with Francis= worry Charles too powerful
    • get £20,000 French pension
  • League of Cognac (1526)
    • anti-Hapsburg league- France, Papacy, Venice, Florence
    • Henry joins but not as member- Protector of the League
    • wanted to sign it in England- stubborn
  • Treaty of westminister (1527)
    • finally joins league of Cognac
    • cements alliance with France, Mary promised to francis or dauphin
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Foreign Policy (1509-1529) Conclusions

  • Wolsey's and Henry's aims differed
  • Achieved military glory
  • secure scottish border
  • losses and gains of territory in France
  • Diplomatic achievements
  • made England major player
  • balance of successes and failure = more failures
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Foreign Policy (1522-1529) Failures

  • 2nd French War (1522) Henry and D. of Bourbon paid by Charles to fight France. Bourbon and Charles focus on Netherlands leaving England deserted in Paris. England return with nothing to show for efforts
  • Amicable Grant (1525) Wolsey gets blame, to fund invasion of France now Francis captured, fell through, lack of money for French war so 1/3 of earnings of clergy and laity taken in forced loan
  • Sack of Rome (1527) Charles' mercenaries attack Rome and capture Clement (angry about pay) , Charles controlled Papacy, HRE, Spain- Henry need Pope for divorce
  • Treaty of Amiens (1527) Anti-hapsburg alliance with France,England compensate France, England suspend trade with Netherlands, failed because of protests in England over trade loss
  • Peace of Cambrai (1528-1529) Francis attack Charles over land in N. Italy, Henry help France, Charles wins at Landrino, Pope, Francis and Charles in peace, fail for Henry
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