Booklet 1: The consolidation to power

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Payton Livingston
History revision booklet 1
The Tudors: England
SECTION 1: Henry VII 14851509
1 The consolidation of power
Henry VII's character
Establishing the Tudor dynasty
2 Henry VII's government
Councils and the court
Domestic policy: Justice and the maintenance of order
Domestic policy: improving royal finances
3 England's relations with Scotland and other foreign powers,
Henry VII's relations with foreign powers
Securing the succession and marriage alliances
4 English society at the end of the 15th Century
The structure of society
Regional divisions
Social discontent and rebellions
5 Economic development: trade, exploration, prosperity and
The economy: agriculture and trade
Early English explorations
Prosperity and depression
6 Religion, humanism, arts and learning
Religion in the reign of Henry VII
Humanism, arts and learning

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Payton Livingston
CHAPTER 1: The consolidation of power
Became king after defeating Richard III in the Battle of Bosworth (BoB) on 22 August 1485.
This terminated Plantagenet rule & begun the new dynasty, the Tudors.
He had no claims & many enemies who wanted him dead, making it essential to consolidate
his power by establishing his dynasty & ensure his enemies were dealt with firmly.
His claim was weak because
He descended from the female line represented by his mother, Lady Margaret of Beaufort.…read more

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Arranged his coronation before his first act of parliament meeting (7 Nov) on 30 Oct.
Demonstrating his right to the throne was based on hereditary right & not only because
Parliament had sanctioned it. The coronation signified the approval of the Church & through
this the approval of God himself. This is important as religion was very important to people then
& the Church had a huge influence.…read more

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However, the rebels landed on the Northwest coast of England in Cumberland, & crossed the
Pennines to drum up support in Richard III's old heartland in the North Riding of Yorkshire. But
the Yorkist gentry were reluctant to commit.
Battle of Stoke Field, 1487
Henry gathered a group of advisors (including close relatives of former Yorkist victims of
Richard III's) in the south and Midlands.
The two armies met at East Stoke new Newark in Nottinghamshire.…read more

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Conveniently able to get rid of the Earl (the most obvious Yorkist claimant) after Warbeck's final
Innocent victim of the political maneuverings of the period.
Edmund de la Pole, Earl of Suffolk & Richard de la Pole, `The White Rose'
Last piece of dynastic security, are the younger brothers of Earl of Lincoln.
Suffolk fled to Flanders in 1498, persuaded to return shortly after and then fled again in 1501
seeking refuge at the court of the Emperor Maximilian.…read more

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Act of Attainder: this declared a landowner guilty of rebelling against a monarch the attained lose
their title, lands & sometimes their lives. Their heirs were disinherited.
Tonnage and poundage: the right to raise revenue for the whole reign from imports and exports.
Parliamentary sanction: an official confirmation of a law given by Parliament as the acclaimed body of
the State.
Mercenaries: hired soldiers who work simply for pay and have no specific commitment to the cause for
which they are fighting.…read more


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