The Government's Legislative Programme is a number of bills planned to be passed by the government, and is read out at the start of each year by the Queen.
A Private Members' Bill is a bill proposed by an individual (usually back bench) MP and not by the party; as such, it will usually concern a personal interest of the MP, and will often lack the support needed to push the bill through parliament.
Parliamentary Oversight is the constant checking of the executive by parliament, by means of scrutiny, such as PMQs or select committees.
Prime Minister's Questions is a weekly oppurtunity for MPs to question and challenge the Prime Minister (and the Cabinet) and their policies for half an hour.
Select Committees are groups of MPs with a specific interest that scrutinise a particular department over the decisions they make.
A Minister is an MP that belongs to the Cabinet, as they are responsible for a specific department, such as Liam Fox, who is the Defense Secretary.