PM and Cabinet
- Cabinet government- Cabinet is central to the Government- we have this theoretically
- Core executive- The PM and top ministers who form the senior cabinet eg. The Chancellor
- Presidentialism: System of government where government is lead by a person who is both head of state and head of government
- Collective responsibility: The cabinet take full responsibility for all policies and publicly support all cabinet policies, even if they disagree with them privately
- Individual responsbility: Ministers are responsible for all mistakes in their department and resign if mistakes are made
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- Parliament: Part of the political system of the UK, it contains two houses: The Commons and The Lords
- Westminister model: Parliamentary system of government modelled after UK political system
- Parliamentary government: Where the executive gains it democratcic legitimacy and is accountable to the legislature- parliament.
- Presidental government: System of government where government is lead by a person who is both head of state and head of government
- Fusion of powers: The three branches of government (Executive, Legislature and Judiciary) are interlinked together- UK has this.
- Separation of powers: The three branches of government are completely separate from each other. US has this
- Bicameralism: Two houses which provide checks and balances on each other are part of the system (eg. the Commons and the Lords)
- Accountability: A function of the House of Commons. It is the principle that the Government is held accountable for all their actions.
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- Constitution: A written statement of citizens' rights
- Constitutionalism: The idea of having a consitution- part of liberal democracy
- Codified: A constitution written all in one place, usually entrenched and rigid
- Uncodified: A constitution written in all different places and usually not protected by law
- Unitary: Sovereignty is found in only one location, centralised state with national instutions at centre
- Federal: Sovereingty is divided between central bodies and regional instutions
- Parliamentary sovereingty: All power lies in Parlament and it is the highest authority in the UK
- Pooled sovereingty:The sharing of decision making between different states in systems of international co operation- for example, the EU.
- Devolution: Different parts of country given special powers from the sovereign
- Quasi- federalism: A constutition which is a mix of unitary and federal
- Elective dictatorship: Someone who is elected democratically, but are elected so many times it almost like a dictatorship- eg Margaret Thatcher and Tony Blair.
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Judges and Civil Liberties
- Judiciary: Collective term for the justice system in the UK
- Judcidial independence: The idea that the judiciary is separate from the legislature and executive
- Judcidial neutrality: The idea that the judiciary is above and beyond politics, they are apolitical
- Civil liberties: The rights given to citizens by the society (eg voting)
- Rule of law: Three principles: No one is above the law, Everybody has the right to a fair trial and all justice is dispensed from the judiciary
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