Globalisation, Work, Migration & Social Justice

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Recap:

Privatisation: 

  • selling of public utliities often at less than market value: 

Deregulation (Liberalisation)

  • economic liberalisation (open up of markets) 
  • foreign imports may replace local goods and so destroy local business. 
  • foreign direct investment
  • provides investment and expertise for existing companies (cutting staff also.)
  • allows branches of MNC to set up (impacts smaller local businesses.) 

Financial Liberalisation:

  • Easier to invest and move money in out of country.
  • Proivdes finance for loans and investments in the developemnt of new businesses. 
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Movement of capital from developed to developing e

  • Countries with developing economie offer cheaper labour, reduced tax and other incentives, including reduced regulations to TNCs.
  • - allows goods and service to be produced more cheaply.
  • - leads to more consumer choice and greater competition
  • - technological innovation
  • provides jobs and economic prosperity? 

Sharing in prosperity? 

  • commodity chains (global value chains)"'
  • - are economic networks linking firms, countries and industries. They span producers, distributors and consumers of goods, increasingly on a global scale. 
  • (cohen and Edwards)
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IPOD:

  • the Apple logo and ipod has been one of the most successful products - through it is thought to be about to go into decline due to iphone and ipad.
  • the ipod also introduces us to another type of consumption - immaterial products such as apss and digital downloads - exists only as data on itunes.
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New International Division of Labour (NIDL):

  • Highly skilled paid jobs in developed economies.
  • low skilled, low paid jobs in the developING economies. 
  • increased employment of women and children: - paid less and easier to control and dispose of.
  • increase in home working
  • differnece in worker protection between those in developed and developing economies.
  • pooerer countries still havily involved in producing food and raw materials for developed nations.
  • lin ked to post-neo fordism which see developed nations exporting expertise and capital to developing countries where manufacturing takes place in places where wages are lower.
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More equal division of labour?

  • some developing economies have been able to exploit the high skilled jobs such as in computer software development - Malaysia, singapore etc.
  • state investment in education, plus have the advantage of english language.
  • large rapidly developing economies moving into high value knowledge economy = Brazil, India, China etc.
  • effet is argued to be an international merging of workers terms and conditions.
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More equal division of labour?

  • some developing economies have been able to exploit the high skilled jobs such as in computer software development - Malaysia, singapore etc.
  • state investment in education, plus have the advantage of english language.
  • large rapidly developing economies moving into high value knowledge economy = Brazil, India, China etc.
  • effet is argued to be an international merging of workers terms and conditions.
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Investment flows:

  • flows from richer to poorer economies.
  • also from developing economie to developed - e.g Tata and Samsung invest in wales and chinese compant bough rover. 
  • most money flows between developed economie. 
  • many of the high tech jobs in developing countries require little capital investment. e.g teleworking, software design.
  • most money moving between countries is not productively inveted byt is based on speculation on currencie, commodities and shares (refferred to as 'casino capitalism'
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Labour export and migration:

  • An alrernative form of global economic participation is in terms of global labour markets and the export of labour to areas where labout is scarce. 
  • within countries - move from rural to urban areas.
  • migrant flows between countries.
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Movement and Migration:

  • 3% of world population (200 million) live outside of country of birth. Mostly economic migrants.
  • increasing number of women migrants.
  • 10-14million of them are refugees. 
  • -escaping from war, famine, persecution. 
  • migrant workers portrayed both as a 'vulnerable resource' and a threat' to local jobs and social stability. 
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Refugee Movements

  • Geo-political instability is a mjor driver of population movement as refugees.
  • Iraq is a contemporary example where an exodus is underway- Afghanistan is another.
  • Numbero f refugees and asylum seekers inrease to 12 million in 2005 11.5 million a year earlier.
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Refugee Movements

  • Geo-political instability is a mjor driver of population movement as refugees.
  • Iraq is a contemporary example where an exodus is underway- Afghanistan is another.
  • Numbero f refugees and asylum seekers inrease to 12 million in 2005 11.5 million a year earlier.
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Impact on workers and family life:

  • Migration might be seen as a 'technology of the imagination ... an act through which people come to imagine better lives in other time or places' (Vigh 2009) 
  • families separated leaving many women as heads of households with no male figure.
  • increasing numbers of women migrants, often leabe children behing with other family members.
  • Lonliness and stress and huge emotions for these people. 
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Impact on workers and family life:

  • Migration might be seen as a 'technology of the imagination ... an act through which people come to imagine better lives in other time or places' (Vigh 2009) 
  • families separated leaving many women as heads of households with no male figure.
  • increasing numbers of women migrants, often leabe children behing with other family members.
  • Lonliness and stress and huge emotions for these people. 
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What types of work do migrants do?

  • work in a range of jobs from high skilled to manual work e.g:
  • construction.
  • Argiculture
  • Care and cleaning
  • hotels
  • resturants 
  • nursing Transport 
  • Nanking and finance 
  • company CEO etc 
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Working conditions:

  • those in high skilled jobs may have good terms and conditions
  • but the majority in manual or smi-skilled work they are likely to experience poor working conditions.
  • Chinese factory workers forces to sleep among piles of doll parts as they churn out christmas presents.
  • human rights campaigners have raise concerns over these chinese who man an estimated £150 a month 
  • chinese factories produce 75% of the worlds toys 
  • in china there are an estimated 8,000 factories employing 3.5million people.
  • deaths from overwork are common in these factories, china dail estimates that 600,000 people are killed this way every year. 
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Apple: & Suppliers.

  • inside apples chinese 'sweatshop' factory where workers are paid just £1.12 an hour produce iphones and apple gadget for the west.
  • factories covered in suicide nets to stop workers from leaping to their death 18 people have killed themselves at the facility.
  • factor in Shenzhen
  • the foxconn city complex factories, employ 235,000 workers and microsoft dell and hewlett packard project are also build on the site.
  • last month 150 foxconn employees threatened to lead from a three-story building after claiming of poor pay and pressurised working conditions. 
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Death amongst construction workers & Seafarers:

  • The annual total number of deaths in india community in Dubai has rises to 1,420 cases in 2008.
  • many workers died in construction sit accidents due to lack of saftey measure, but suicide cases have also been a big part of the death rates.
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Death amongst construction workers & Seafarers:

  • The annual total number of deaths in india community in Dubai has rises to 1,420 cases in 2008.
  • many workers died in construction sit accidents due to lack of saftey measure, but suicide cases have also been a big part of the death rates.
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Effect of globalising processes on developing coun

POSITIVES:

  • higher export generated income
  • employment growth and consequent higher wages 
  • tax revenue
  • potential to reproduced inequality - if the social structure, political institutions and socia lpolices play a favourable role.
  • Exposure to new technology leads to improve skills and productivity facilitating the upgraging of industry into more value added output. 

NEGATIVES:

  • due to lack of controls on earning and profits inequality likely to increase
  • relocation of manufacturing can have disruptive socail effect, including internal migration, little skill development in assembly plants.
  • Need to attract FDI puts TNCs in strong position to negotiate/ impose poor labour standard and management practices. 
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Effect of globalising processes on developing coun

POSITIVES:

  • higher export generated income
  • employment growth and consequent higher wages 
  • tax revenue
  • potential to reproduced inequality - if the social structure, political institutions and socia lpolices play a favourable role.
  • Exposure to new technology leads to improve skills and productivity facilitating the upgraging of industry into more value added output. 

NEGATIVES:

  • due to lack of controls on earning and profits inequality likely to increase
  • relocation of manufacturing can have disruptive socail effect, including internal migration, little skill development in assembly plants.
  • Need to attract FDI puts TNCs in strong position to negotiate/ impose poor labour standard and management practices. 
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Effect of globalising processes on developing coun

POSITIVES:

  • higher export generated income
  • employment growth and consequent higher wages 
  • tax revenue
  • potential to reproduced inequality - if the social structure, political institutions and socia lpolices play a favourable role.
  • Exposure to new technology leads to improve skills and productivity facilitating the upgraging of industry into more value added output. 

NEGATIVES:

  • due to lack of controls on earning and profits inequality likely to increase
  • relocation of manufacturing can have disruptive socail effect, including internal migration, little skill development in assembly plants.
  • Need to attract FDI puts TNCs in strong position to negotiate/ impose poor labour standard and management practices. 
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