Social control

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Criminology and social control:

  • most people respect and accept social norms (rules) 
  • and assume others will do also. 
  • if they dont, they face punishment through informal and informal sanctions. 
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Criminology and social control:

  • most people respect and accept social norms (rules) 
  • and assume others will do also. 
  • if they dont, they face punishment through informal and informal sanctions. 
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what is social control:

  • Criminal justice system is the most powerful institution of social control. 
  • but ... police, prisons and courts are not the only forms of social control: 
  • - formal: institution, for example, education, health, media and religion. 
  • - infromal: firends, family, collegues and peers. even strangers. 
  • state may clearly define what is acceptable or desireable behaviour but friends, etc may encourage different types of behaviour. 

e. alcohol consumption: 

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what is social control:

  • Criminal justice system is the most powerful institution of social control. 
  • but ... police, prisons and courts are not the only forms of social control: 
  • - formal: institution, for example, education, health, media and religion. 
  • - infromal: firends, family, collegues and peers. even strangers. 
  • state may clearly define what is acceptable or desireable behaviour but friends, etc may encourage different types of behaviour. 

e. alcohol consumption: 

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Government rules: Binge drinking.

  • consuming douvle the daily unit guidelines in one session. 
  • nearly a third of alcohol related deaths are a result of alochol related accidents. 
  • 30% sexual offences 
  • 33% bulglaries 
  • 50% street crimes. 

each group has its own rules be it students (drink a lot.) professionals, elderly etc.

ultimate social sanction - exclusions from the group. 

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Government rules: Binge drinking.

  • consuming douvle the daily unit guidelines in one session. 
  • nearly a third of alcohol related deaths are a result of alochol related accidents. 
  • 30% sexual offences 
  • 33% bulglaries 
  • 50% street crimes. 

each group has its own rules be it students (drink a lot.) professionals, elderly etc.

ultimate social sanction - exclusions from the group. 

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Cohen: Social control:

  • Rdical analusis of punishment. 
  • Moral panices, and social construction of crime and problems. 
  • the state, crime, politic and human rights. 

social control into sociological discourse was introduced by ROSS 1901: 

" all processes which induce individuals to behave in conformity with the norms and values of society, including criminal law, police, courts and prisons" 

  • criminologist since have been fasinated by deviance, and social control or lack of social control.
  • idea that responses by courts and poice can cause crime rather than prevent crime and deviance.
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Cohen's 'Vision of social control' (1985)

"organised ways in which society responds to behaviour and people it regards as deviant, problematic, worrying, threatening or undiserable in some way or another" 

  • alnalysis of the various ways that the state have evolved as it deals with the control of "deviant" behaviour. 
  • Cohen focuse on the use of social control allows a look at the way the state uses "soft line" methods of control. 
  • Cohen disagrees with drukheims view that social control over time has become progressively more humanee and less repressive. 
  • the idea that they are more sophisticated and effective ways of punishment now.
  • Prison is just one part of an apparatus not the whole picture. 

" increasing extension, widening, disperal and invisibility of social control apparatus" 

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Summary of Cohen's arguments:

  • new penalties in addition to, rather than instead of imprisonment.
  • imprisonment continues to grow
  • new kinds of social control outside the prison
  • the disperal of disciple - Links to Foucault. 
  • New controls are more invasive and intense
  • the repressive power of the state to control us in extended and intensified. 
  • penalities should be as well as prison not instead of - new kinds of social control also such as schools, health servce etc. 
  • Foucalt - States the optimism born from enlightenment led to the construction of prison and mental asylums, designed to 'correct' deviant behaviour. then criminal justice system developed with aid of professional discourses such as psychoanalysis. 
  • the key to this was that social control forms expanded throughout society
  • cohen intersted in the fact the state appears to have a huge ability to incorporate and co-opt reformist approaches that attempt to challenge the very core of state power which ultimately means that the repressive power of state to controll all of us is extended and instesified. 
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Cohen: 'nets' of social control:

Wider nets - idea more poeple are subject to contol. net is wider so it is scooping up more fish. more and more people are being drawn into systems of control e.g criminal justice system. 

denser nets - idea of 'net strengthening' or sanctions having added requirement. more intensive or intrusive interventions.

new nets - newly designed sanctions of social control apparatus. see an expanded group of activities and tactics (nets) 

deeper nets - referes to less visible, informal, no state mechanism that are being subsumed into social control apparatus. 

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Cohen: 'nets' of social control:

Wider nets - idea more poeple are subject to contol. net is wider so it is scooping up more fish. more and more people are being drawn into systems of control e.g criminal justice system. 

denser nets - idea of 'net strengthening' or sanctions having added requirement. more intensive or intrusive interventions.

new nets - newly designed sanctions of social control apparatus. see an expanded group of activities and tactics (nets) 

deeper nets - referes to less visible, informal, no state mechanism that are being subsumed into social control apparatus. 

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Wider nets:

  • expanded definitions of deviance
  • new kinds of 'crime;
  • scooping up more fish
  • the C.I.S as a hughe suction machine 
  • net widening. 

 - example of expansion of crime / deviance that are now subject to state control and sanctioning is - Cybercrime, cyber-bullying etc. (surveillance etc. 

  • things change over time especially the views on what is deviant and criminal. 
  • problems with net widening: Labelling of young offender or way drug addiction has been criminalised. 

Cohen puts it: 

"creation of all of those new agencies and services surrounding the court and the prison, the genreation of new systems of knowledge, classification and proffesional interests, is little more than widening of the last century, made possible by resources, investment, technology and vested interests on a scale that benefits post-industrial society' 

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Denser Nets:

1) intesnvie surveillance: 

  • run by probation service but also involves families, employers and schools. 

2) Intrusive interventions: 

  • psycho-social methods.
  • cognitive behavioural therapy. 

1) response to violent offenders: police surveillance, regular home visits, reporting to police of wear abouts with miniimum of 5 years, registered on sex offenders list, and many more forms of social control measure. 

2) 'offending behaviour programmes' - structured courseswhich work through a sequence of modules intended essentially to teach offender to avoid 'distorted thinking' and improve skills in handling social sanction - usually requirements rather than voluntary. 

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Denser Nets:

1) intesnvie surveillance: 

  • run by probation service but also involves families, employers and schools. 

2) Intrusive interventions: 

  • psycho-social methods.
  • cognitive behavioural therapy. 

1) response to violent offenders: police surveillance, regular home visits, reporting to police of wear abouts with miniimum of 5 years, registered on sex offenders list, and many more forms of social control measure. 

2) 'offending behaviour programmes' - structured courseswhich work through a sequence of modules intended essentially to teach offender to avoid 'distorted thinking' and improve skills in handling social sanction - usually requirements rather than voluntary. 

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New nets:

  • community service 
  • probation orders
  • day training centres
  • metnal health laws. 
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New nets:

  • community service 
  • probation orders
  • day training centres
  • metnal health laws. 
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Deeper nets:

  • "the awful secret of community control"
  • blurring between penal system and society 
  • involement of family, school, workplaces
  • private policing, neighbourhood watch
  • visibility and accountability. 

concerns cohen as he says: 

" system penetrates the space of the family, school and neighbourhood. tries to buttress their existing control processes by exporting the modes of discipline and control which characterise it own spaces" 

  • if social control is everywhere, then distinction between external and self-control will eventually disappear. 
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Deeper nets:

  • "the awful secret of community control"
  • blurring between penal system and society 
  • involement of family, school, workplaces
  • private policing, neighbourhood watch
  • visibility and accountability. 

concerns cohen as he says: 

" system penetrates the space of the family, school and neighbourhood. tries to buttress their existing control processes by exporting the modes of discipline and control which characterise it own spaces" 

  • if social control is everywhere, then distinction between external and self-control will eventually disappear. 
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Contemporary application:

  • expansion of penal system
  • ASBO''s - anti social behaviour disorder
  • electronic taggin
  • parental classes 
  • surveillance society - CCTV & DNA database. 
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Contemporary application:

  • expansion of penal system
  • ASBO''s - anti social behaviour disorder
  • electronic taggin
  • parental classes 
  • surveillance society - CCTV & DNA database. 
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New forms of social control:

  • Surveillance - internet as new envrionment for criminal activity. 
  • but also for everyday interaction (social media) 
  • government recognises this and the need for stricter controls of cyberspace 
  • control us by letting us know that governement knows our every move on the interenet. 
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New forms of social control:

  • Surveillance - internet as new envrionment for criminal activity. 
  • but also for everyday interaction (social media) 
  • government recognises this and the need for stricter controls of cyberspace 
  • control us by letting us know that governement knows our every move on the interenet. 
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continued:

  • 'subtle' forms of control: personal data collection: advertising, cookies etc. 
  • latest government proposals to increase surveillance capabilites. 
  • social control is not one-direction process, there is always a resistace. 

key themse of internet surveilannce: 

  • privacy, freedom of speech, networks, centralised vs decentralised control of internet. 

Foucault: disciplinary society: 

  • model of control developed in prison expanded into wider society (schools, internets, hospitals etc) 
  • model for the industrial ages.

Deleuze: Control society: 

  • society progressed from disciplinary society. 
  • control society characterised by reliance on computers - network of contol 
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continued:

  • 'subtle' forms of control: personal data collection: advertising, cookies etc. 
  • latest government proposals to increase surveillance capabilites. 
  • social control is not one-direction process, there is always a resistace. 

key themse of internet surveilannce: 

  • privacy, freedom of speech, networks, centralised vs decentralised control of internet. 

Foucault: disciplinary society: 

  • model of control developed in prison expanded into wider society (schools, internets, hospitals etc) 
  • model for the industrial ages.

Deleuze: Control society: 

  • society progressed from disciplinary society. 
  • control society characterised by reliance on computers - network of contol 
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