PUSH FACTORS such as...
- Lack of economic opportunities
- Political strife/oppression
- Lack of civil/human rights
PULL FACTORS such as...
- Socio-economic opportunities e.g. employment, education, health care etc
- Famly links
- Former colonial ties
- Higher standard of living
- Political/social/religious freedom
- Oversimplifies a complex and multifaceted topic
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- Castels and Miller (2003)
Global migration trends characterised by five features...
- Acceleration- greater numbers than ever before
- Diversification- in terms of a complex array of motivations behind migration
- Globalisation- more countries involved in sending and receiving than ever before
- Feminization- more female migrants to meet demands for domestic work, sex tourism and 'mail order brides'
- Politicization- migration seen as valuable at the same time as threatening
- Based on the notion of a 'state'- maybe migration should be discussed in reference to different urban regions?
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'PROCESS OF SYSTEMS'
- Migration a product of interconnections between micro and macro processes
- Macro refers to wider processes like economic conditions such as demand for more labour power and political conditions such as conflict and instability
- Micro refers to individual knowledge, resources and understanding of migrants
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