Globalisation and migration



Migration prior to the 1990s came from certain colonies

  • Irish (1900s), Eastern/Central Europeans and Jews during WW2
  • Caribbeans in the 1950s (Windrush generation)
  • South and East African Asians in the 1960s/70s
    • Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and Sri Lankan, as well as Kenyan and Ugandan 

Globalisation has led to 'super-diversity' in migration

  • there are now more countries and ethnicities who migrate
    • individual differences in those from one country such as occupation or marital status 

Class differences:

  • citizens: migrants with full citizenship rights - this is difficult to do now
  • denizens: privileged foreign nationals are welcomed by the state 
  • helots: migrants in unskilled, poorly paid work or have been illegally trafficked. They are the most exploited 
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Feminisation of Migration

Majority of migrants in the past have been men but now the division is roughly equal 

  • Expansion of service occupations which require higher female labour 
  • western women are now in paid employment and are unable/unwilling to complete domestic work
  • Western men continue to be unwilling to perform domestic tasks
  • Failure of the state to provide adequate childcare
    • leads to migration to become maids, cleaners and nannies
    • This is seen through high levels of nurses being female migrants mostly from Eastern European and Asian backgrounds

Migrant women are also seen as 'mail order brides' reflecting the gendered and racialised stereotypes. 

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Migrant Identities

Migrants may develop hybrid identities based on their backgrounds 

  • hierarchial identities 

Transnational identities

  • diverse migration patterns have led to the development of transnational identities 
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The politicisation of migration

States seek to create policies to control, assimilate and deal with migrants. Also creating anti terrorism and security laws


  • creating policies whcih sought to integrate migrants by teaching the norms values and language of the host country 


  • Accepting that diversity in migration is acceptable
    • shallow diversity: acceptable types of diversity such as food
    • deep diversity: non-acceptable types of diversity such as marriage customs=
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