Britan And The World - 1860's
- 19th Century - Literally true that Britain ruled the waves "Britania ruled the waves"
- The empire
- 25% of the earth's surface
- Over 400 million people part of the British empire
- 1/4 of the worlds population
- 1815-1914 (Imperial century)
- Loyal and expanding
- 19th Century - looking to expand, finding Africa
- Explorers - Richard Burton, John Speak
- Got people in India
- They have an imperial army
- Australia, India, Canada- British colonies = big!
- Marituis, Malta and Gebrallta --> Smaller colonies
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- How was Britain protected on all sides?
- -Marituis - controlled trade route through meditaranian
- -Malta- Naval basis
- Gebrallta- Guards the meditaranian
- Marituis and cape protect the east.
- Gebrallta is the only way into the meditaranian and so they are protected on all sides- so everyone trades with them :)
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- Gebrallta (18th century) and Malta (1815)
- Crimean war 1815-1856
- - Russia -v- Briton, France and the Ottoman empire
- Brief overview on the Ottoman empire
- - Huge power in the 18th century but 19th century it starts to lose power
- - Who's going to take over it? (Eastern question)
- - If Russia got it it would threaten British Empire trade routes
- Known as the sick man of Europe
- Crimean victory
- 1856 (Treaty of Paris) End of Crimean war
- Russia due to their naughtiness are banned from placing their war ships in the black sea and can not fortify the meditaranian.
- Now British Army has no threat from Russia
- French- 1858, work begins on the Suez canal under the free leadership
- Because shorter trade routes to the meditaranian via the Suez to the British Raj
- 1869- once completed, 2nd ship through= massive tradeship of the British empire
- Railway in Egypt, from Alexandria (North of Egypt, Cairo). First railway in Africa and middle east
- Built by 1851- 1856 ---> this means that they can expand to Africa
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- Disreali described it as the "Jewel in the crown"
- India- masses of resources such as cotton, tea and spices (most important)
- They then forced people to make tea
- Market; cotton, tea
- 1857- Indian mutiny--> Indian soldiers
- Cartridges in new guns made with unkown animal grease
- Cow sacred to Hindus and Pork sacred to Muslims ...
- The soldiers rebelled
- The British army sorted this out...
- After 1857- The British empire had complete control on India
- Biggest number for imperial army - 100,000 men -
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The Royal Navy
- Navy = impressive
- 100,000 men in their navy
- 2 power standards
- Vowed to have more ships than their two biggest rivals
- Biggest rivals at this point (middle of 19th century) Russia and France
- 1890 more ships than the whole world
- HMS warrior - 1861 - fastest, strongest and most powerful
- Puts all the best elements for ships together
- Traffic routes, hazards etc
- To date there has only been 3000 of these charts ---> of which by 1855 the British navy had discovered 1981 of these charts.
- Discovered and controlled 2/3's of the sea
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- 1850, merchant ships can carry 3 and a 1/2 million tonnes of steering wheel...
- By 1866 merchant ships can carry 5 million tonnes of steering wheel...
- Shows that the need for it has increased
- Also shows that their capabiltiy to get raw materials has improved
- The Cutty Sark ---> Famous for its captain
- It carried tea
- It is a STRONG merchant ship...
- These ships had a race who could get to the destination the fastest...
- Cutty sark lost its rudder (steering wheel) nevertheless it came second ... lagging behind by only 2 weeks.
- Thus bringing confiendence in the British Empire that it is strong and undefeatable!
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