Gladstone and Disreali Course

Key notes on Gladstone and Diraeli

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Introduction

Britan And The World - 1860's

  • 19th Century - Literally true that Britain ruled the waves "Britania ruled the waves"
  • The empire
  • 25% of the earth's surface
  • Over 400 million people part of the British empire
  • 1/4 of the worlds population
  • 1815-1914 (Imperial century)
  • Loyal and expanding
  • 19th Century - looking to expand, finding Africa
  • Explorers - Richard Burton, John Speak
  • Got people in India
  • They have an imperial army
  • Australia, India, Canada- British colonies = big!
  • Marituis, Malta and Gebrallta --> Smaller colonies
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Continued...

  • How was Britain protected on all sides?
  • -Marituis - controlled trade route through meditaranian
  • -Malta- Naval basis
  • Gebrallta- Guards the meditaranian
  • Marituis and cape protect the east.
  • Gebrallta is the only way into the meditaranian and so they are protected on all sides- so everyone trades with them :)
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The Meditaranian

  • Gebrallta (18th century) and Malta (1815)
  • Crimean war 1815-1856
  • - Russia -v- Briton, France and the Ottoman empire
  • Brief overview on the Ottoman empire
  • - Huge power in the 18th century but 19th century it starts to lose power
  • - Who's going to take over it? (Eastern question)
  • - If Russia got it it would threaten British Empire trade routes
  • Known as the sick man of Europe
  • Crimean victory
  • 1856 (Treaty of Paris) End of Crimean war
  • Russia due to their naughtiness are banned from placing their war ships in the black sea and can not fortify the meditaranian.
  • Now British Army has no threat from Russia
  • French- 1858, work begins on the Suez canal under the free leadership
  • Because shorter trade routes to the meditaranian via the Suez to the British Raj
  • 1869- once completed, 2nd ship through= massive tradeship of the British empire
  • Railway in Egypt, from Alexandria (North of Egypt, Cairo). First railway in Africa and middle east
  • Built by 1851- 1856 ---> this means that they can expand to Africa
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The Raj

  • Disreali described it as the "Jewel in the crown"
  • India- masses of resources such as cotton, tea and spices (most important)
  • They then forced people to make tea
  • Market; cotton, tea
  • 1857- Indian mutiny--> Indian soldiers
  • Cartridges in new guns made with unkown animal grease
  • Cow sacred to Hindus and Pork sacred to Muslims ...
  • The soldiers rebelled
  • The British army sorted this out...
  • After 1857- The British empire had complete control on India
  • Biggest number for imperial army - 100,000 men -
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The Royal Navy

  • Navy = impressive
  • 100,000 men in their navy
  • 2 power standards
  • Vowed to have more ships than their two biggest rivals
  • Biggest rivals at this point (middle of 19th century) Russia and France
  • 1890 more ships than the whole world
  • HMS warrior - 1861 - fastest, strongest and most powerful
  • Puts all the best elements for ships together

Admirality Charts

  • Traffic routes, hazards etc
  • To date there has only been 3000 of these charts ---> of which by 1855 the British navy had discovered 1981 of these charts.
  • Discovered and controlled 2/3's of the sea
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Merchant Navy

  • 1850, merchant ships can carry 3 and a 1/2 million tonnes of steering wheel...
  • By 1866 merchant ships can carry 5 million tonnes of steering wheel...
  • Shows that the need for it has increased
  • Also shows that their capabiltiy to get raw materials has improved

Famous Example

  • The Cutty Sark ---> Famous for its captain
  • It carried tea
  • It is a STRONG merchant ship...
  • These ships had a race who could get to the destination the fastest...
  • Cutty sark lost its rudder (steering wheel) nevertheless it came second ... lagging behind by only 2 weeks.
  • Thus bringing confiendence in the British Empire that it is strong and undefeatable!
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Army

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