HOW ACCURATE IS IT TO SUGGEST THAT BISMARCK WAS WHOLLY RESPONSIBLE FOR THE PROCESS OF GERMAN UNIFICATION IN THE YEARS 1862-71? - Bismarcks's diplomacy allowed him to strengthen Prussia international situation
HOW WAS BISMARCK ABLE TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THE POLISH REVOLT TO GAIN RUSSIANS NEUTRALITY?
WAS IT WHOLLY DOWN TO BISMARCK?
HOW DID BISMARCKS DIPLOMATIC SKILL INCREASE THE CHANCE OF AN AUSTRIAN DEFEAT?
Bismarck saw a way of gaining Russia'd friendhip through the Polish revolt by offering miliary aid - Russia rejected but agreed to consituition whereby Prussia would hand over any political prisoners that crossed the border - clear russia would remain neutral
mainly down to Russia dislike with Austria - took little skill from Bismarck who made the mistake of claiming the convention didn't exist after protests from Britian and France - yet Russia did still promise to fight alongside Prussia in the franco-prussian war in 1870-1 providing they maintained Austrian assistance
Bismarck relaised war was a possibility - gained important allies - met Napoleon at meeting of Birritz gained French neutrality - took little skill form Bismarck - extinguished fear of powerful french opposition - made sectret alliance with Italy - agreed to support Prussia in a war against Austria if declared within 3 months - Austria fighting from 2 fronts - however italy easily defeated only becuse of Genral Moltke Austrian troops didn't join troops in the South - Bismarck skillful in isolating his enemy
HOW ACCURATE IS IT TO SUGGEST THAT BISMARCK WAS WHOLLY RESPONSIBLE FOR THE PROCESS OF GERMAN UNIFICATION IN THE YEARS 1862-71? - Bismarck's skill in manipulating situations to suit the interests of Prussia
HOW DID BISMARCK MANIPULATE THE SCHLESWIG AND HOLSTEIN PROBLEM?
HOW DID BISMARCH MAINIPULATE THE ELMS TELEGRAM?
WHAT CAN BE USED TO ARGE AGAINST BISMARCKS MANIPUALTING SKILLS?
HOW DID BISMARK CALL ON THE SOUTH TO SUPPORT PRUSSIA?
It has been argued that Bismarck used the Schleswig Holstein affair as means of manoeuvring Austria into open confrontation with Prussia - The convention of Gstein 1865 agreed Holstein (near to Prussia) administered by Austria and Schleswig administered by Prussia - Bismarck could now pick a qaurrel with Austria over Holstein any time he wanted - Bismarck was able to lay the ground works for war - Bismarck did stoke up tension with Austria over Holstein - Austria were force into taking what appeared to be the agresstive state in 1866
argued Bismarck was prepared to fight a war against France, aslong as France was seen as the agressor - war would bring the S.states into Prussian hold - Bismarck took full advantege of the Hohenzollern canditure crisis - Willian found the french demand for official renuniclation extrememly insulting sience he had already given his word - notifies Bismarck of the events in a telegram - gave Bismarck permission to communicate details to press - Bismarck delieberatly reduced telegram by strucking out words - making what was first a conciliatory reply appear to be an uncompromising response to french demand - Willian saw this version and remarked 'this is war' - telegram caused reuptions in France - Napoleon (urged on?) declated war in 1866
Bismarck didn't control the whole of Hohenzollern affair - The french Emperoe and people were ready to fight before the Elms telegram
sectret treaty made after Austro-Prussian war - claimed France was the agressor
HOW ACCURATE IS IT TO SUGGEST THAT BISMARCK WAS WHOLLY RESPONSIBLE FOR THE PROCESS OF GERMAN UNIFICATION IN THE YEARS 1862-71? - Down to Prussia's military might
WHO WERE PRUSSIA LEADING MILITARY LEADERS?
WHAT DID THE LEADERS ENSURE?
WHAT FIRE POWERS PROVED DECSISIVE IN THE AUSTRO-PRUSSIAN WAR AND THE FRANCO-PRISSIAN WAR?
HOE DID THE MILITARY LEADER IMPROVE THE MOBILISATION OF TOOPS?
HOW DID WILLIAM I HELP PRUSSIAS MILITARY?
Bismarcks main aim was Prussian dominance, Prussian patriot rather than German nationalist - howver when German nationalism grew, tended to see Prussias and Germans interest as one
Good military leaders General Moltke and Minister Roon
Ensured Prussians army were well equipped
in the Ausrto-Prussian war the breech-loading-needle-gun proved decisive at the Battle of Sadowa 1866 (Austria had 45,000 casualties, Prussia had 9,000) - Franco-Prussian war the Krupp artillary proved decisive, led to earlier defeats of the French
Military leaders saw potential of railways in mobilisation of troops - proved successful in both Austria and France war - Austria only had one line to transport troops, Prussia had 5 - Prussia's mobilisation of 500,000 troops much more efficient than France (When Napoleon arrived at Metz troops or equipment had not arrived)
Strengthening of the army was his main concern - William appointed the military leaders (however it was Bismarck who solved the consitutional crisis, by funding the military by taxing they were re0organised without the need for goverment - Roon who intoduced the bill to reforem the army (doubled army's size and re-equppied troops)
HOW ACCURATE IS IT TO SUGGEST THAT BISMARCK WAS WHOLLY RESPONSIBLE FOR THE PROCESS OF GERMAN UNIFICATION IN THE YEARS 1862-71? - Prussian's oppositions weaknesses and mistakes
HOW WAS AUSTRIA IN A WEAK POSITION DURING THE 1866 WAR?
WHAT FRENCH MISTAKE WAS MADE DURING THE FRANC0-PRUSSIAN WAR?
Austria had no allies due to bad diplomatic relations - verge of bankruptcy after the Crimean war - only had one line to mobilise troops
French troops made the mistake of withdrawing to the Metz fortress where they remained - bulk of Naploeons troops were out of action