Geography Exam Questions


What is a ecosystem?

A community of plats and animals interacting its each other and the physical environment

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What is the difference between a food chain and a

A food chain is a simple line diagram between products and consumers but a food web is a complex diagram with decomposes, consumers and producers.

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Explain the role of decomposers in an ecosystem

Decomposers break down organic matter like dead plants and animals into material that can be reused by vegetation by absorption trough the soil. Without decoposers like fungi and bacteria there would be lots of dead matter on the floor stopping plant growth and the nutrient cycle.

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Describe the difference between a producer and a c

Producers produce ther own energy in photosynthesis from the sunlight but consumers get their energy and nutrients from eating plants and other animals. Producers are vegetation and plants but consumers are animals which means the animals also have lots of variety in their diet unlike producers and the energy is transferred from the plant to the consumer (animal)

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Explain why the diagram show in FIGURE 9 is an exa

Biomass (plants and animals) die, faces, dead plant mater falls the ground as litter. Decomposers ugh as wors, bacteria and fungi break down the organic matter and converts the dead matter into nutrients that can be taken up or absorbed by vegetation. Vegetation then uses the nutrients for growth.

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Describe the distribution of tropical rainforests

Tropical rainforests are located mainly above and below the equator. They are located in Brazil, Northern South America, central to western Africa, Indonesia and Malaysia. There is also areas of rainforest in north eastern australia and In south eas Asia.

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Describe the role of producers in an ecosystem

They convert energy from the sun into glucose by photosynthesis to grow and nutrients in the soil  in order to feed consumers and grow

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Give one reason energy is lost at each level in a

  • lost because of movement
  • some ex created through waste
  • respiration
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Explain the links between the different levels in

Te producer produces its own food by photosynthesis. The primary consumer, herbivore, eats the producer as a way of gaining energy. The secondary consumer eats the primary consumer and the energy is passed along. The carnivore dies and rots and the producer uses the nutrients from the  soil to grow.

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Explain how the vegetation in a tropical rainfores

Drip tip leaves are shaped with a point on the end. This allows the rain to drip off the leaves. This is needed because if the water was left on the leaves then the leaves would rot and the plant wouldn't be able to photosynthesise in order to create glucose and energy to survive.

Buttress roots are tall and wide roots on tall trees. The roots give the trees stability and also helps get nutrients from  the soil. They are needed because the nutrients is only in the top layer of the soil this means the roots need to be wide to get the most nutrients and tall enough to get light to photosyntheisise to produce glucose ad energy to survive. 

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Describe the location of the Amazon Rainforest

The amazon rainforest is located in the north of South America. It is located in the north western part of Brazi as well as parts of Venezuela, Columbia, ecuador, Peru and Bolivia.

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Describe how selective logging and replanting are

Selective logging is cutting down trees that are only fully grown and leaving the younger trees to grow protecting the ground from erosion. This is sustainable because they are to getting rid of all the trees and they are giving new space for trees to grow even while taking some trees away, leaving the ecosystem still stable.

Replanting is when new trees are planted to replace ones that have been cut down. This is sustainable because they will still be there in the future because new trees are put in place of the  ones that have been cut down.

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outline one reason for the distribution of tropica

Tropical rainforests grow in warm and wet places, this is why they are mainly located around the equator where the temperature range doesn't really change throughout the year and because of the amount of evaporation stays the same there will also be lots of precipitation

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Outline one reason for the high levels of biodiver

There are high levels of biodiversity in tropical rainforests because theres lots of variety of food therefore plea to of prey for predators to eat to keep them alive. The warm and wet climate makes it a place where plants grow rapidly and lots of animals migrated there in order to survive. 

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Using FIGURE 8 and your own understanding, explain

Development in the tropical rainforest has economic advantages such as energy, hydro electric power, which provides energy to homes, is gotten through damms, and as there is lots of precipitation in the rainforest lots of energy is made. However behind damms the water will flood the land killling biodiversity and washing away fertile soil so no life can be present there any more.

Another economic advantage is logging, this creates lot of jobs for local people who will ten spend the money locally helping the lives of the locals who live in te rainforest or near it. The wood can then be sold internationally which creates an income for the government who can spend it on improving the lives of the people. However this destroys many animals habitats and their resources as well as local tribes.

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Suggest how ecotourism can help in managing tropic

Ecotourism is small scale and has little impact on the rainforest, it builds the paths from local materials and they are raised which means that people don't trample on the vegattation and kill it. 

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Explain how selective logging can encourage the su

Selective logging encourages sustainable management as they are not choppbg down the largest trees and leaving the canopy and protecting the soil so that new trees can grow in the fertile soi.

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‘Plants and animals adapt in order to survive in a

Cacti have adapted by having a thick, waxy covering which reduces water loss, as there is less than 250mm per year in the desert. They also have spikes which warn off predators and help collect and stor water for long periods of time.

Camels have nostrils that can close, this helps them during sandstorms so they don't get sand in their nose. They also have muscular legs with leathery knees which make it easier for them to walk miles across the desert and when kneeling their knees will help prevent them burning in the hot sand which can be up to 50 degrees Celsius.

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What is a desert?

An rea that receives less than 250mm of precipitation a year

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Define arid

having little or no rainfall; that means its to dry or barren to support vegetation/life

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Where are hot deserts located?

Hot deserts are located rouund the tropics of cancer and Capricorn. They are found along the west coast of South America, north Africa, central Australia and western USA. There is some hot desert on the east coast of Africa.

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Explain the cloudless conditions in the photo belo

Hot deserts are around the tropics and the air around there is high pressure and therefore the air sinks. The ir is dry and no condensation can form .

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How do cloudless conditions account for high dayti

Without clouds there is nothing obstructing the suns rays which are at a low angle of incidence and very concerntrated. At night there are o clouds to keep the heat in and the temperature drops dramatically. 

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What are the physical characteristics of hot deser

Deserts are usually hot, dry and sandy. This is because there are little organic matter and soil isnt very fertile. The emperadores on average are between 15 and 35 degrees Celsius which leads to rapid evaporation and flash floods becaus the water isn't absorbed quickly. There is little rainfall less than 250mm.

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Why does the soil in a hot desert lack leaf matter

Not many plants grow and therefore not much leaf matter on the floor. 

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Why would a lack of access hinder the development

Lack of access will hinder the development because in order to develop they would have to build more roads to access larger parts of the desert and they will have to put in pipes for water, electricity and gas, both of these are very expensive to do. Not able to cut down trees, mine if they can't get where they need to.

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Describe the social effects of water shortages

With the shortage of water, many people my not have enough and as water s essential in order to have life this is a big risk in living in the desert. Without water, living things willl become dehydrated, or could have sunstroke and losing essential salts through sweat. This may be a big issue for torism in the future and hotels may be limited to a certain amount of water.

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Explain how does water shortage hinder economic de

water shortages hinder economic development because without enough water farmers will not be able to grow as many crops and therefore will have less food to eat, and the money the farmers earn on the government and from selling goods will decrease. Another reason it hinders economic development is that without water tourists will be less attracted to go to these places meaning the $30 billion made per year will probably decrease and affect the local areas and people.

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Why are extreme temperatures a challenge for devel

Extreme temperatures are a challenge when developing the western desert as they make working conditions hard as sunstroke and dehydration will become an on made working in these conditions difficult. As well as working the extreme temperatures made farming difficult as the temperatures makes evaporation rapid and takes moisture out of the soil and plants can't grow without water which will stop the growth and may lead to a shortage of food for the local area.

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Suggest two reasons why irrigation is important fo

Irrigation is important for future development because without this the local supply of food may decrease meaning local people struggle to provide food for their families. I know the reason irrigation is important because exporting goods growing will be good for the country's development.

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Describe the areas at risk of desertification

The areas at risk are either above or below deserts, around the tropics of cancer and Capricorn. Areas at risk are central to Western Australia, india and south west Asia, south of the Sahara desert, South Africa and western USA. However there are exceptions such as France and eastern Brazil.

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What is ovrgrazing?

Overgrazing is when animals, like sheep and Castle, eat the plants and the vegetation gets stripped leaving the ground bare  and vulnerable to sil erosion.

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Explain how population growth can cause overgrazin

If the population grows there will be an increase in demand for food and resources. This will lead to more animals being found and without another on the castle or she may eat too much and ***** the land causing vulnerability to soil erosion.

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What is a natural hazard?

A natural event that threatens people or has the potential to cause damage, destruction, injury or death

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Explain how the high risk of a flooding hazard is

The risk of flooding in the uk is high because when it rains large amounts it can burst river banks and cause the land around the river to flood. As water is so destructive it will take anything in its way and destroy homes and therefore putting lives at risk. There is a rising risk of flooding because of climate change, with water levels rising, flooding will be more frequent and will mean storm surge will be bigger and there will be more water on the land that can't be managed.

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Explain how natural events become natural hazards

Natural events, precipitation, I'm not considered hazardous as they can be managed and they do not cause damage or risk of injury or death. This may become a hazard if there is too much and we are unable to control it. When this happens it will turn into a hazard, because now it might cause damage, flooding destroys land, and can also put lives at risk, as when it floods the water is cold and dirty and if these people can't swim they might drown.

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In the future why s it likely that there will be a

If the population grows then more people will be forced to live in areas where natural hazards occur frequently, increasing their risk of being affected by a natural hazard. In the future there might also be more people in hazardous areas because due to climate change, the sea levels are rising, therefore more people will be forced to move away from the coast and into areas that may be at risk from natural  hazards, earthquakes.

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Escribe the relationship between plate boundaries

Most earthquakes and volcanoes are located along plate boundaries In clusters all lines. They are mainly along the mid Atlantic Ridge food, along the pacific And Indo Australian Boundry, along announced it on the South American plate and the  Pacific and the North American plates. There are some exceptions in northern Italy and southern Europe and in southern Asia which occur away from plate margins.

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Suggest why both volcanos and earthquakes occur in

Earthquakes and volcanoes both occur in New Zealand because it's a long destructive plate Boundry when oceanic plate, Earthquakes and volcanoes both occur in New Zealand because it's a long destructive plate Boundry when oceanic plate, Pacific plate, is subducted under the less dense continental plate, Indo Australian. As the Pacific plate is denser it gets subducted under the westerns continental plate that can't be destroyed. As the plates are sliding past each other the plates stick due to friction. The convection currents in the mantle keep moving the plates creating pressure and tension. Attention of pressure overcomes friction as it melts in the mantle on the point to joke forward releasing the pressure through the plates to seismic waves. The pressure of the oceanic plate in the magma will build up and eventually the Maghera will break through the crust and solidify forming a composite volcano.

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Describe the global distribution of tropical storm

Tropical storms are distributed mainly between 5° and 30° north and south of the equator. Thy form  over oceans with a water temperature of 27° and a depth of 70 m. They form in Ocean such as the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Pacific Ocean. Tropical storms are mainly concentrated between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn (23.5° north and the south of the equator). Rarely do tropical storms from within 5° of the equator, due to the coriolis affect. More tropical storms form the northern hemisphere.

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Summarise the reasons for topical storm distributi

The high ocean temperatures (27°) as there is lots of heat and moisture causes the air to ride and calls so storm clouds before creating a low-pressure zone, which is perfect for winter forming. Lots of heat energy between the tropical storms the form. There is also a low wind shear  the clouds can rise from store without being torn apart. Coriolis  not strong enough for them to form around the equator.

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Give two reasons why tropical storms eventually lo

They lose their heat and moisture and energy supply as they move of the sea onto the land. The land also creates friction and slows down the storm.

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Describe two features of a tropical storm

In the eye of the storm, the middle, there is the lowest pressure and the weather is calm. The coriolis effect means the storm is moving from east to west across North America, clouds spin anti-clockwise direction around the centre.

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Describe the location of the philippines

The Philippines is located in south east Asia, between the tropics of cancer and the equator in the Pacific Ocean. It is sout of Taiwan and china and north of indonesia.

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Why do you think so many buildings were destroyed(

Lots of buildings were destroyed because many were unprepared as they did not think It was going to be very serious, the building were also not built to high standards because of it being a lower income country.

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What are the challenges facing the authorities in

The challenges that they are facing is that many families are unable to pay for recurves to build new houses. Many of the places where they would build are filled with rubble and it would cost for them to move it.

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State what is meant by extreme weather

A rather event that is significantly different or unseasonal from normal weather

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Suggest one way the distribution of tropical storm

Occur in more oceans as they would be warm enough to form a tropical storm

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Are all impacts of climate change negative? Give a

Not all impacts are negative, less ice in the arctic ocean will allow more shipping and extraction of gas and oil wich can be used economicaly to make money 

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Define mitigation

reducing the causes of climate change 

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Suggest how do use of renewable energy production

The burning of fossil fuels releasing CO2 into the atmosphere contributes to 87% of all  CO2 produced. Are using renewable energy we will reduce the largest producer and be using methods that are more environmentally friendly. We can use win turbines to generate electricity from natural winds, either on London or in the sea, solar panels can be put on top of houses, cars, or anywhere where there is space that can turn the light energy from the Sun to heat water or generate electricity, all reducing the amount of fossil fuels that need to be burnt and the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere.

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Explain how the process of carbon capture can hel

Carbon capture will help to mitigate the causes of climate change as it will prevent carbon going into the atmosphere and as it is a greenhouse gas, it will decrease greenhouse gases affect and reduce climate change. The carbon is captured and compressed using technology and transported to an injection well where it is injected as a liquid into the ground and stored in geological reservoirs, preventing up to 90% of carbon dioxide from being released into the atmosphere.

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Suggest how climate change may affect agriculture

Areas are going to have less water or irrigation deceased amount of yield, areas with warmer climate might produce more yield 

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Explain haw the profile of a river changes downstr

The average velocity and discharge (amount of water) of a river increases along its course. Although the other course has a steep gradient and its V shaped Valley, the velocity depends on how much water comes into contact with the channel banks and bed. In the upper course the channel is shallow due to vertical erosion and narrow, so there is much friction. This is because the in the upper course the rock is harder and so the valley sides are not why did out much by weathering and erosion. Therefore, the velocity is low.

In the middle course the river, the gradient is less steep, so the river begins to meander and erode Laterally into the valley sides,. The rate of erosion increase. As the river uses more energy in lateral erosion it is not able to remove all the eroded material so this builds up on the valley floor to give a more gentle profile.

The lower course of the river flows through low-lying land and has a wide and deep channel. Therefore, there is less friction resulting in a high velocity. The speed is boosted by the addition of discharge from all the tree trees. Disposition from floods build up the floodplain and meanders migrate. This builds up and widens The Valley. 

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Explain how a waterfall forms

The waterfall is formed in the upper course where vertical erosional processes occur to a far greater extent. Water runs over alternating bands of hard and soft rock. The soft rock that is beneath the hard-rock is less resistant and so very small quickly as a result of water running over it (known as hydraulic action). The soft rock starts to undercut the hard rock, leaving it unsupported. As a result, the hard-rock will collapse into the river bed. The rocks will scrape away at the base to abrasion forming a plunge pool. Other smaller sediment is carried downstream. Over time the processes repeat and the waterfall retreats backwards. This leaves behind a steep sided gorge.

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Define; -floodplain -levee

-is the wide, flat area of land on either side of the river in its middle and lower coarse, which is sometimes flooded

--embankment of sediment(skit) along the banks of a river it may be farmed natural by regular flooding or be built u by people to protect the area against flooding. They are often several meres higher then the floodplain

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Why are flood plains beneficial for farmers?

Floodplins ar fertile lands nd therefore crops will grow quickly and lots of them will grow 

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Describe the location of the river tees

River tees is in the north east of England, it runs through Middlesbrough and Darlington. Flowing west to east.

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As we move downstream, more deposition opposed to

Development on floor plains leads to deposition on banks.

Gentle gradient leads to meanders, les potential energy and the water is slower round the inside bend of the river and deposits material. 

Matril has more contact with river bed more friction leads to more deposition

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What is river flooding?

When a river channel can no longer hold the amount of water flowing in it and the water overflows the banks. A flood becomes a problem when the water rises to a level where it threatens property and/or life

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What is; a flood hydrograph? Lag time? Peak discha

-a flood hydrograph is a graph that plots river discharge after a storm. The discharge is the volume of water flowing along a river

-time difference between the peak of the rainstorm and the peak flow of the river 

-maximum flow of/in the river

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Define appropriate technolohy

A small scale affordable movement that is suited to the locals needs and skills

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How do “magic stones” use appropriate technology t

Magic stones help to solve desertification by using resources the stones that are easy for locals to find or transport under easy methods that can be learned quickly in order to build a stone wall between 0.5 and 1.5 m tall. Play trap the rainwater and the soil it washes down behind it and only small bits of water can fit through this keeps the water soak into background and allows plants to grow in fertile soil  behind each wall

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Define climate change

A long term change in the earths climate, especially a change due to an increase in the average atmospheric temperature 

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What is deposition

When there is a decrease in the level of energy, it is no longer competent to transport its load

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Which hard engineering strategy is the most effect

I think that building embankments is the most effective strategy as it increases the river capacity which reduces the chances of flooding and also providing habitats for animals. They also provide walking and cycling routes and this is a cheap strategy compared to other hard engineering methods.

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Which soft engineering strategy do you think is th

I think that afforestation is the most effective as it increases the amount of interception as roots take up water through roots which also decreases the surface runoff. As well as this afforestation adds more variety to a landscape, increases biodiversity and more carbon dioxide is absorbed

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