GCSE ICT Revision, Hardware

ICT Revision

- Computer systems

- Hardware

- Input Devices

- Output devices

- Storage devices

- Seconadry storage

- Portable computing

- Networks

- Types of network

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Computer Systems

Computer Definition- An electronic machine that processes data. It follows instructions given to it in the form of a program

PDA- A small hand-held computer that can be used as a PC, web browsing, mobile phone or media player, they're either touch screen or used with a stylus

Mainframe computers- Are large, expensive computers that support many users at the same time.

System- A collection of parts that work together for a particular purpose, e.g banking systems.

Dedicated computer- Are designed to work in just one particular situation

Embedded systems- Computer systems inside electronic devices to control them, e.g digital watch

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Hardware

Hardware- All the physical equipment you can see and touch

Central Processing Unit (CPU)- A set of very small electronic circuits that control the computer by running the programs, these programs are stored in RAM

Motherboards- All electronic components in a computer are attached to a plastic card called a motherboard

Memory- ROM and RAM

ROM- Read-Only Memory, contains basic instructions which stay there even when the computer is turned off

RAM- Random Access Memory, Stores data and computers need a lot of RAM.

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Input Devices

Input devices- Are needed to put data into a computer 

Common examples- Keyboard, Mouse, Touch Pad, Webcam, Microphone, Scanners, Joystick, Touch Screen

Automated data input- Automating data input saves money and time with also a less risk of mistakes. Examples: OCR- Reads human readable letters, Used for: Number plate recognition    OMR- Reads pen marks, Used for: Lottery enteries or Exam papers. Bar Code Scanner- Reads the bars on products, Used for: Supermarket checkouts

Sensors- Detect events in the real world and produce electrical signals. Real-world energy is analogue meaning it varies continuously e.g temperature in a room. Computers need to read digital signals so the output from the sensors must be converted from analogue to digital signals using an analogue to digital convertor.

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Output Devices

Computers process the data they are given as input and they then pass back results as output.

Printer output- Is called hard copy, and it can be used: To look at when there is no computer access, or, As proof that something took place

Common output devices- Laser printer, Ink jet printer, Speakers, Headphones, Touch screen

Specialist output devices- Plotter, Actuators, Lights (Traffic lights etc) Motors, Robot arms

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Storage Devices

Memory- The smallest 

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