Effects of isolationism and world war one
+ Isolationism: this is when America isolated herself from foreign affairs after world war one. This included American refusal to join the league of nations. America didnt join the war, because they wanted to 'return to normalcy'.
+ America had a smaller amount of damage to the country after World War One, considering she only joined the war in 1917.
+ During the war America supplied weaponary to Europe, and her economy was boosted massively.
+ America didnt join the league. So when countries recieved 'economic sanctions', which was refuse in trade from countries in the league. Those countries traded with America, and so America's economy was growing quickly.
+ Congress: American representitive. There are two houses: senate and representitives + Congress opposed joining the league on behalf of the American people. Harding said they needed to put America first
Fordney- Mccumber tarrif/ Smoot Harley
+ This was made in order to ensure goods were purchase by Americans from America, in order to boost American buisnesses and boost the American economy.
+ Fordeny Mccumber tarrif: This was a policy of increasing tarrifs on foreign goods. This was introduced in 1922, in order to ensure goods are only purchase by American people from America, to boost the United states econmy.
+ Due to this policy, other countries also introduced a policy of high taxes on foreighn goods.
+ This was good and effective at the start, but it really damaged the economy in the bust.
Selling Consumer goods
+ Hire purchase: People making a deposit, and then payed at installment. this made consumer goods more accessible to more people. This increased the amount of people purchasing goods, and therefore boosted the economy. Although, this lead to serious debt.
+ Shares: These are owning a sector of a buisness, this would provide an income. In order to afford shares, people would loan money from banks. + Shares increased by 300 percent
+ Banks were also lending money
+ Advertising: Advertising became a popular way of selling goods. Billboards and catalogue orders were used. This encouraged 'keeping up with the joneses', it made people realise they wanted things they didn't know they wanted.
+ Mass production: This is producing goods quicker and cheaper for less money.
+ ASSEMBERLY WAS FOUNDED BY HENRY FORD, FORD MOTORS
+ The motor industry supplied four million jobs
+ Henry Ford: He founded the assembely line, he was very infulencial. Boost in his buisness, allowed his to build charities, fund for education. Generally boosted society. He was antisemitic.
+ Divided society:
+African Americans: + 45 % of families lived below the poverty line. + There was major poverty in Afro-American society, in 1920's 1 million A-A lost their Jobs, and moved to the North for lower paid jobs.
+ Farmers also hit a depression, many over produced food, and were unable to sell it, as well as infertile land. Many farmers were evicted and also moved to the North for jobs in cities.
+ Many children were working in factories and in agriculture for a small amount of money and with long hours.
+ Cinema: This was a popular form of entertainment. There were arising celebrities such as Charlie Chaplin. This was a multi million dolar industry! Hollywood was the film industry of the world. A large range of people were visiting the cinema, which boosted the economy.
+ Jazz: Jazz was a popular music form upon the modern American 1920's people. Althiygh many of the older generations opposed this, it was said to be against traditional American values, due to being inspired by African-American blues music. This music spread through gramophones and the radio.
+ Dances: There were new dances such as the Tango, Charleston and Black bottom. People were going to dances, and drinking alcahol as lesiure activity. These dances were said to sway from tradational America, and were deemed inapporoptiate, with too much physical contact.
+ Flappers: Women were straying from what was seen as their role, 25% more were working. These roles were changed after the women's war effort. Women cut their hair short, smoked cigarrettes and drank alchol, and well as being more sexually liberated. Women were given the vote. This was a change in women's role, ad changed from women being expected to bare children and care for a family.
+ Before World war One many Europeans emmigrated to America. Many Europeans couldnt speak English, were Catholic, and lacked education.
+ America was described to be as a 'melting pot' of nationalities.
+ WASPS (white anglo saxon protestants)/ 'traditional Americans' said that they were worried about the rise in immigrants, and feared American values would be lost.
+ Immigration laws were introduced
+ 1917- Literacy test: Immigrants had to read a passage of English
+ 1921- Quota act - 357,000 were allowed in pair year
+ 1928- 150,000 allowed in per year
+ National orgions act- 2% of 1890 population allowed in
Problems caused by immigration for Americans
+ Immigrants were 'cheap labour' and therefore took a lot of Jobs. + People feared American values would be lost. + Ghettos formed. + Racial predjudice was common- lead to arisal of hate crime.
Jim Crow laws
+ Jim Crow: This was a popular American Comedian, he used to preform a 'comical' dance and song, which was supposed to be representing a black slave. + The Jim Crow laws were influenced by this so called 'comical' act. +There was a series of laws put into place. + These laws were put into place, to encourage segretation. Blacks and other ethinic minorities, werent allowed to use the same public schools, restrooms, drinking fountains...
+ gheto: a community group of an ethinic minority, these are often poor areas, which experience crime.
Ku Klux Klan
+ Ku Klux Klan: These were a racially predjudice group, that were anti- black, anti Catholic, and antisemetic. These were responsible for hate crimes such as lynching, ****, and beating.
+The KKK memebers were all WASPS.
+ In the 1920s the KKK rose to 5 million members.
+ The idenitity of Klans men's identity was secret.
+ They wasnt must justice for the ethnic minorities, because many of the judges were either a part of the Klan or supported the KKK.
+ The KKK was reduced in memebers, when a main member, Stephenson was found to have ****d and murdered a woman on a train in Chacigo.
+ The KKK wanted Blacks to be slaves again, after the slave trade was abolished in 1865.
Who lived in America?
+ There were different groups in America, including:
+ The wasps - better jobs, more money, white
+ Native American Indians - 1890 were forced off land, some remained in America but kept traditional life styles.
+ Black Americans- Originated from Africa, from slaves. The slave trade ended in 1865 after the civil war. Many worked on land.
+ Hispanics- Spanish speaking, from Mexcico and South America. These often had ranches.
+ Asians - There was a rise in Chineese and Japaneese, many worked in construction and helped build the west.
+ Southern and Eastern Europeans- These fled before the war, at the end of the 19th centrury. These were often Russian or Polish, many were Jewish or Roman Catholic.
+ Federal Government: This means that each state was their own government, buy also a central government.
+ Federal laws apply to all states, state laws to individual states
+ Central government: this is where the president rules.
+ The president is directly elected by the people, being a democratic country.
+ The president controls thr army and navy.
+ Congress: has to pass laws or reject them, that the president tries to have.
+ Supreme court: 9 judges, these are chosen by the president with the senates agreement.
+ The sepreme court makes sure the congress and president, obey the laws of consitituion. They decided the laws of consititution.
The Sacco and Vanzetti case
+ Sacco and Vanzetti: Italian Immigrants
+ Thse immigrants were convicted of robery and assult.
+ The two admitted to being communist archonists, and being draft dodgers in world war one, but said claims of assult were false.
+ They were accused on treasoning against the US government.
+ They were executed on the 15th April, many protested due to lack of evidence.
+ Still to this day there are arguements about if they commited the assult, as witnesses claimed they were in two different places at the same time.
+ Many say they were executed due to the red sacre, which was fear of retaliation against the govermenment and communism.
Collapse in stock exchange
Unequal distribution of wealth
+ 45% of the American population were below the poverty line. Therefore consumer goods only appealed to 55% of the population. So when there was a decline in demand and wealth from the 55% of the population, the economy fell extrememly feel (limited market). Heavy spending decreased.
+ Shares fell. Normal people were investing in shares rather than investors. Shares allowed people to invest in more extravigant lifestyles, including bigger homes and cars. Therefore when shares dropped, people lost an income. Many people were evicted. Some people loaned money to purchase shares, and therefore were in debt.
+ There was overproduced consumer goods, and when there was a decrease in demand, companies lost money, and some shut down.
Hoover's attempts & failures
+ Smoot- Hawley tarrif & Forndey Mccumber were introduced by Hoover. This made tarrifs on imported goods into the US higher than they'd been in one hundred years. When the stock market crashed, companies were unable to sell abroad.
Hoover's attempts + Insisted that 'prosperity was just around the corner'- gave hope. +Promised a chicken in every pot, 45% below poverty line - false promises + 3 million for unemployed + Met with Henry Ford and other significant companies, he told them to not reduce price, so wages arent reduced. He also told them to 'job share', rather than making people unemployed. + Reconstruction Finance Cooperation, provided money for local government and railways and loans to banks- success + Hoover dam- provided Jobs + Bonus march 1945 - WW1 soliders demanded their bonuses early in depression, soliders put this down with tear gas and weaponary, 2 babies doed +" In hoover we trusted now we are busted"
The election Roosevelt VS Hoover
Why people voted Hoover
+ He set up the Reconstrction Finance Cooperation + Orphaned at 9 and built his own fortune- determination +Many WASPS voted republican traditionally + Experience as president + People feared Roosevelt's policies were against the American dream, where as Hoover believed in Laissez-Faire and Rugged Individualism + Roosevelt was said to be brief in his promises
Why people voted Roosevelt
+ Preposed a ' new deal' - people needed help + Hoover was disliked (In Hoover we trusted, now we are busted) + Harvard education + Democrats prepose in government help, which America needed + Experience as New York State Grosvenor, he was known for taking action. +Roosevelt won by a landslide with 42/48 states
Prohibition - Elliot Ness
Why did this occur?
+ This was introduced in some states during the war. Many alcholic drinks were made in Germany, so it was viewed as wrong to continue trading with Germany. + Propaganda assossiated it with family neglection. + 'Demon Drink'- Christians were in favour
+ In 1929, 50 million litres of alchol was destroyed.
+ Moonshine- When Illegal liqour was made ( Al Capone) + Bootleggers- People who brought alchol in from Mexico and Canada
Why did this end?
+ It caused reoccuring gangs, and lead to prostitution + It made criminals out of normal people + There were a lack of agents and many took bribes + It was a industry (bars, selling), Roosevelt brought it back for money.
The New deal
+ New deal: Part of government policies set up in order to relieve depression in America, this was a part of Roosevelts campaign, although it was put forward by congress.
The aims of the new deal: + Reform: Regulate the economy to prevent future depression, and have a sustainable economy. + Relief: Heal/help the people/buisnesses in need (money to unemployed). + Recovery: Recover things damaged in the depression
+ Civilian Conservation Corps- men 18-15 were given 6 months work, prodvided money/skills. 1940- 2 million joined BUT THIS ONLY HELPED WHITES
+ Public works administration- Paid for public projects e.g builiding schools
+ Agricultural Adjustment Administration- Paid people to dig up crops so there wouldnt be over production. Income doubled BUT DIDNT HELP THE POOREST FARMERS. Paid people for the meat to feed the poor with.
+ Teneese Valley Authority- 21 dams for hydro-electrical power, Farmers given training
Roosevelt first 100 days
+ Declared a bank holiday in March 1933, not long after becpming president. + Closed all banks for 4 days, he and his team examined all banks. + The non corrupt banks were allowed to reopen. + People began trusting banks with their money, and the economy was boosted. +5,000 banks were reopened.
+ These were a frequent thing but the first was on March 12th 1933. +Roosevelt would do radio broad casts, he would give people trust in him and showed he was dedicated as president. +" only thing we have to fear is fear itself".
+ Passed 13 major laws in first one hundred days
+ Alphabet agencies in first 100 days: Tennese Valley authority, Civilain Conservation Corps
How did he help Farmers?
+ The Tennesse Valley Authority- provided farmers with training. They also built dams, these prevented flooding which reduced crop damage.
+The Civilan Conservatation Corps- These relieve unemployment by providing 6 months of work, as well as giving skills to men 18-25 + 5 hundred million to poor
+ The banking crisis relief (banks shut for 4 days, 5,000 reopened)
+ Public works administration- built homes, schools and hospitals
More alphabet agencies
+ Home owners Corportation- Loaned money to home owners
+ National recovery act- Working standards, such as hours and child labour. Hoped to raise prices.
How effective was the new deal?
+ Roosevelt won four times
+ Restored American faith
+ Millions of Jobs created
+ Food/ shelter given
+ Trust put back in the banks
+ People became too dependant on governnment help, when help was reduced in 1937, unemployment rose
+Buisnesses felt working conditions amde them vunerable
+ Help wasnt provided to all (CCC- black Americans)
The second new deal
+ This was after 1935
+ At the start of 1934- there were still over 11 million (11.3) unemployed
+ The Works Programme administration- Employed people to build schools
+ Wagner Act 1935- Gave employees rights to join work unions, and ensured people werent treated poorly fr doing so.
+ Social security act - pensions, support for handicapped and mothers
Supreme court's opposition
+ 30s- supreme court was full of Republicans, and due to many contraditcing beliefs, opposed many of Roosevelt's policies. Roosevelt tried to replace some of the supreme court.
Sick chickens case
+ Poultry farm in Nyew York signed to the NRA, which encouraged "fair prices, fair wages, fair competition".
+ 1935- One brke the rules by selling diseased chickens.
+ NRA took them to court for breaking the rules.
+ The supreme court said that it was not for Federal Government interference
+ Within a night, 746 of the NRA's rules were deemed illegal
Criticism of the new deal
+ Roosevelt gained most popularity by helping the poor people, richer people refered to him to have 'betrayed his class'.
+ Activists like Townsend said that the ND didnt do enough, as at the start of1934, 11.3 million were still unemployed.
+ States opposed things like TVA (tennesse valley adminitration), as they believed the Federal G were too involved in individual states
+ Henry Ford, opposed the employees rights programmes. ( wagner act)
World War Two
+ As in world war one, America supplied weaponary to countries (Britain, and France)
+ This boosted the industrial economy
+ Like in World War One
+ There was a larger demand for food, so agriculture benefitted economically.
+ About 27 million move to the US (immigration), these worked in armament factories.