Functions of ingredients

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Function of fat

Spreads- texture and lubricant (butter and margarine)
Shortening- stops gluten forming long strands- create 'melt in mouth' texture (shortbread and cakes)
Trap air- when fat mixed with sugar it traps air bubbles (cakes)
Shelf life- stops water from evaporating therefore increases shelf life (fruit cakes and biscuits)
Frosting- adds flavour and texture

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Function of oil

Shallow/ deep frying- intensifies flavours and crips food
Sautéing- adds flavour (onions)
Roasting- water evaporates from surface and oil intensifies flavours (meat and veg)
Dips for bread- alternative for butter
Salad dressing/sauces- adds flavour and texture (Mayonnaise)

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Function of eggs

Trap air- when whisked egg protein stretches and air is trapped as bubbles

Bind ingredient- when egg is heated it COAGULATES which binds everything together

Coat and protect- when egg coagulates it forms a protective seal around the food (pané chicken)

Thicken foods- protein coagulates and thickens

Garnish- add variety to salad

Stop oil and water seperating- contains lecithin which acts as emulsifier

Enrich- eggs have a wide range of nutrients

Glazing- protein forms golden brown colour when mixed with startch and sugar
(Startch also absorbs any fat that melts)

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Function of sugar

Flavouring- sweet foods

Trap air- when mixed with fat air bubbles are trapped which helps mixture to rise

Boiled sugar- sweets
Sugar crystals add texture- depending on size
Sugar softens gluten- to make it have a tender crumb

Add colour- caramelises when heated

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