Food and Nutrition

macro + micro nutrients

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  • Created by: Alexa
  • Created on: 31-03-12 12:21

Macronutrient

-Carbs
-Proteins
-Fats 

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Micronutrients

-Vitamins
-Minerals 

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Proteins

-Used for growth + repair
-Made up of amino acids

  • There are 22 amino acids
  • 10 are essential for children, and adults need 8
  • Indispensable amino acids are the same as essential amino acids

-Needed for energy
-Avaliable from meat, milk, eggs, cheese, fish and pulses
-Protein from animals are called HBV (high biological value)
-Protein from vegtables is called LBV (low biological value)
-Food products with a low biological value are missing some essential amino acids
-Complementary proteins are two food products, one is lacking in essential amino acids, but the other complementry food will replace the loss.

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Meat Analogue/Novel Protein

-"Meat-like" proteins

TOFU
-Tofu is made up of grounded and sived soya beans
-It is semi-solid and easily absorbs flavour from other ingredients

TEMPEH
-Fermented mass of soya beans
-Solid, which can be sliced/flavoured/cooked in many different ways

TEXTURED VEGETABLE PROTEIN (TVP)
-made of bundles of extruded soya protein, (made into paste then pushed through tiny holes). This produces chains of protein material which can then be flavoured.

MYCO-PROTEIN
-Fermenting an organism in water, maize syrup and nutrients. Then chilled and then flavoured. Formed into shape. Similar texture to meat. Quorn is a type of mycro-protein. 

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Fats

Fats are nutrients composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. They are the most concentrated energy food.(HIGH CALORIES). Fats are solid at room temp. Oils are liquid at room temp. Chemically fats are very similar consisting of glycerol and fatty acids. Some fats are saturated because they have all the hydrogen atoms they can hold, eg. butter and cream. Unsaturated fatty acids have some hydrogen atoms missing eg. oils and nuts. If several hydrogen atoms are missing they are called polyunsaturated eg. margarine. 

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Functions of Fats

  • Fats supply the body with a concentrated source of energy
  • Fat is stored in the body as a reserve of fuel in layers under the skin. This also conserves body heat. Fats protect internal organs.
  • Some fats carry the fat soluble vitamins A,D,E and K.
  • Fats supply the essential fatty acids needed by the body.
  • Fats make the diet palatable and satisfying. They have a high satiety value as they are digested slowly. 
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Requirements

  • No more than 35% of our energy should be in the form of fat.
  • Above 40% could lead to obesity and coronary heart disease.
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Carbs

Function of Carbs
- energy
- warmth/body fat

No more than 11% of our food energy should be from NME's (non-milk extrinsic sugars) which are found in table sugar and sweets, 39% should be from starches.

Glycaemic index is the measure of the effects of carbs on our blood sugar levels.  

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Carbs (2)

Three groups of carbs - NME's, starches and sugars (cellulose).

What is the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic sugars? Intrinsic sugars are inside the cell (naturally occurring) where as extrinsic sugars have been added.

What is dietary fibre? Dietary fibre is foods which are high in starch and passes unchanged through the body.

Why is it important in our body? Helps with digestion, keeps us fuller for longer, prevents cancer of the colon.

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NSP

What is NSP? 

NSP is known as fibre. it aids digestion and has a high satiety rate (keeps you fuller for longer). It prevents cancer of the colon, because it clears away toxins. It also prevents constipation and diverticular disease (a lack of

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