DURKHEIM AND CRIME (FUNCTIONALISM)
DURKHEIM - Crime is inevitable.Too much destablising. Because:
- not all socialisation is effective
- diversity in lifestyles and values (subcultures)
POSITIVE FUNCTIONS OF CRIME
- Boundary Maintenance (join in condemnation)
- Adaption and Change
- POLKSY - *********** channels mens sexual desires away from harming the family.
Criticisms - how much is good? not positive for victims. Marginalisation of females.
MERTON'S STRAIN THEORY (FUNCTIONALISM)
Strain between the goals put forward by societies norms and not being able to achieve them legitimately.
Cultural factors - emphasises success
Structural factors - society is unequal
CONFORMIST - Accept and legitimate
INNOVATORS - Accept and illegitimate
RITUALISTS - Give up and legitimate
RETREATISTS - Reject and legitimate
REBELLION- Reject goals and replace them with their own.
CRITICISMS - Takes statistics at face value. Sees crime as a working class phenomenon. Not all working class indidivuals commit crime. Assumes we all have the same values and goals.
SUBCULTURAL STRAIN THEORIES (FUNCTIONALISTS)
COHEN - 'status frustration'.
Strain between goals and means. Alternative status hierarchy. Delinquent behaviour.
CLOWARD AND OHLIN - Unequal access to both legitimate and illegitimate opportunity structures.
- Criminal subcultures - Apprenticeship. Established hieracrchy of professional adult criminals.
- Conflict subcultures - Disorganisation. Loosely organised.
- Retreatist subcultures - Illegal drug use. Drop outs of both legitimate and illegitimate opportunity structure.
Evaluation - ignores crime of the wealthy.