1625-1629

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  • Charles' Rule 1625-1629
    • James' Legacy
      • Religion
        • Wanted to continue Middle Way through broad church to diffuse tensions between Puritans and Anti-Calvinists. Protestants fear Catholic invasion e.g. Gunpowder Plot & want reform of CofE. Underlying problems of religious disunity
      • Finance
        • Elizabeth left crown solvent but James left it in £800,000 debt - extravagant spending. Poor sources of crown revenue exacerbate problems e.g. selling titles and crown lands. Financial insecurity and lack of power for Charles - Parliament has power over him
      • Foreign Policy
        • 30 years war in Europe - Catholics vs Protestants. HRE 1618 replaced by Catholic Ferdinand - James has reason to get involved. Catholic victories - Elizabeth (James' daughter exiled from Palatinate. Tried to be peacekeeper = Parl suspicious of his motives - fear catholicism
    • Finance
      • Forced Loan 1626
        • Extracted 5 subsidies worth of money on all taxpayers to fund wars
          • Arminians willing, 76 refused to pay (arrested), Charles believed it was his prerogative to do so
            • Only 70% collected, some judges e.g. Carew refused to enforce it, 76 refused, Abbott suspended for not licensing propaganda
            • 5 Knights Case
              • 5 main FL resistors  - claimed a writ of Habeas Corpus
                • Represents parliament challenging King's prerogative but C's judgement upheld
                • Hostility towards Charles in Third Parliament as a result - arbitrary arrests
      • Tunnage and Poundage
        • Continued to collect it without parliament's consent
          • Abuse of his royal prerogative and dismissing parliaments privileges
      • First Parliament (1625)
        • Used power of purse against him - only granted £140,000 of £1million war expenditure, and only T&P for one year not life
          • Attack on prerogative? - continued to collect T&P C financially weak
      • FP
        • Compounded financial problems - needed Parl to grant money to fund his numerous wars
    • Religion
      • Fear of Catholicism - theological concern; feared absolutism
        • Parliament largely Puritan, Charles Arminian = clashes
        • Arminianism too similar to Catholicism
      • York House Conference - Buckingham associates himself with Arminians
        • Many believe he wants to establish an absolutist state and Catholic church
      • First Parliament (June-August 1625)
        • Lack of harmony - attack on growth of Arminianism
          • Generated by Catholic successes in 30 years war, French catholics in court, influence of highchurch men in court
            • Birmingham and Charles took advice from Laud - alarmed by his excessive zeal
      • Marriage to Henrietta Maria
        • Catholic - married and fills court with French Catholic servants
        • Suspicion of crypto-Catholicisim
      • Third Parliament 1629
        • Very hostile, dominated by discussion of Arminians
          • Exacerbated by promotion of leading Arminians such as Laud to Bishop of London
          • Three Resolutions: condemned innovations in religion, Arminianism as popery
            • Arrested 9 MPs and dissolved Parliament
            • Re-admittance of Archbishop Abbott didn't quell fears
    • Parliamentary Radicals
      • Attempts to impeach Buckingham and Montagu
        • Results in king dissolving parl = no coooperation
      • Edward Coke and John Eliot
        • PofR - direct challenge to kings prerog
          • 3 Resolutions - extreme measures to ensure its reading - MPs arrested = tension
            • Unprecedented!!!
    • Buckingham
      • York House Conference
        • Championed Laud and Montagu - support for Arminians clear - Charles' wishes more than Bham's?
      • His death = Charles becomes more hostile to Parliament and removes himself form public life
      • Used as a scapegoat to attack Charles' policies
        • Heavily involved in foreign policy - largely failed = criticism of his advice, character and motives
        • Increased tensions between Parliament and King -  illustrated in his impeachment and assassination
    • PP vs RP
      • Charles' Character
        • Seemingly smooth accession, blameless moral character
        • Royal prerogative and DR of K - reluctant to explain motives
        • Favourites e.g. Buckingham
        • Leaned towards Arminianism
        • Asserted prerogative more frequently and extensively
      • Power of King
        • Privy Council - advisors, Local Gov - JP, Prerogative Law Courts, The Church, Central Administraton
      • Petition of Right, 5 Knights Case, Three Resolutions
        • Parliament don't want to replace King's power but preserve the traditional form of constitutional monarchy
        • Charles exceeding traditional rights, appears absolutist
    • Foreign Policy
      • Trip to Madrid 1623
        • anti-Spanish stance spurred by failed Trip to Madrid
          • Attempt to court Spanish infanta, refuses, Charles taken Prisoner
            • Charles and Buckingham declare war on Spain, need subsidies - Parl reluctant
      • Cadiz Expedition (Oct 1625)
        • £500,000 used to prepare fleet - still short of essentials
          • Landed, got drunk, sickness swept through = farce - crept home in humiliation
      • La Rochelle Expedition (June 1627)
        • Agreed to crush Hugenots (Protestant French rebels) as part of marriage treaty
          • Reversed by Bham - helps Huguenots = at war with France now too
            • Scaling ladders too short, French made peace with them = useless and money spent
      • Mansfield Expedition (Jan 1625)
        • 6000 English men to support German protestant Mansfield
          • Troops poorly equipped, 4000 died of starvation, angered Parl, reluctant to grant funds
      • 2nd Parl (Feb 1626)
        • Many discontent against Bhma and FP failures - used as a scapegoat
          • Demand enquiry into Cadiz Expedition and 1624 subsidy spending
            • Prepare Bham's impeachment-Charles dissolves parl, abandoning subsidies - war effort = desperate state
      • Third Parliament (March 1628)
        • Offered king 5 subsidies and T&P but had to sign Petition of Right
          • Identified threats: disasters at home and abroad, innovations in religion
            • Charles dissolves Parliament
  • Used as a scapegoat to attack Charles' policies
    • Heavily involved in foreign policy - largely failed = criticism of his advice, character and motives
    • Increased tensions between Parliament and King -  illustrated in his impeachment and assassination

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