Charles I Foreign Policy, 1625-1629

Charles' foregin policy -1629-1640 - History AQA AS level

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  • Created by: Clodagh
  • Created on: 07-05-13 12:11
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  • Charles I Foreign Policy, 1625-1629
    • Aims
      • Find a sufficient bride
      • Return the Palatinate back to Frederick
      • War with Spain
    • Anglo-Spanish War, 1625-1630
      • Anti-Hapsburg Alliance
        • The Treaty of Southampton was signed in September 1625 between England and the United Provinces
          • Only Denmark joined the League. Charles would pay them £30,000 a month for the army
            • Christian IV of Denmark managed to invade North Germany but was defeated
      • Cadiz Expedition, 1625
        • The expedition was not very well prepared. They needed fitting out and feeding as some provisions went rotten and they were already short of money
        • Parliament had requested a naval war with Spain
          • They also wanted the war to be self-financing through the capture of Spanish prizes
        • On the attack of the port, troops found a wine store and became too drunk to fight
          • Shortages of beer and water then led to sickness
            • Buckingham, Lord Admiral, was blamed for the failure of the expedition
      • Von Mansfeld's Expedition, 1625
        • Charles and Buckingham attempted to set up an anti-Spanish 'front' to force the Hapsburg's to restore the Palatinate back to Frederick. They used 6,000 troops
        • Von Mansfeld was an experienced German mercenary and set off as leader
        • Troops were poorly equipped and many died from disease
          • They were also unable to carry on the expedition through French land
    • French Match and Alliance, Dec. 1624
      • Treaty, November
        • Henrietta Maria and her children would be able to practice their religion freely
          • Her children would be educated as Catholics up to the age of 13
        • A chapel in London would be opened, served by 28 priests and a bishop
        • Catholics were to be granted toleration
        • A £240,000 dowry would be handed over by the French
      • Buckingham wanted to encircle the Hapsburgs
        • It would require co-operation from France and would provide a sufficient wife for Charles
        • He was trying to make religious concessions that were unacceptable in Spain
      • Charles and Henrietta Maria married in June 1626
      • Cardinal Richelieu would not make war until it suited him
    • Collapse of Anglo-French Relations
      • In September 1625 English ships went on loan to France to defeat a Huguenot force off La Rochelle
        • Huguenots were fellow Protestants and it was the moral duty of Charles to defend them
      • Charles was anxious for parliamentary subsidies and to keep Roman Catholic suspicions with France on a low
        • He did not carry out the part of the marriage treaty that dealt with giving Catholics toleration in England
      • Charles expelled most of Henrietta Maria's Catholic servants
        • Their marriage turned cold
      • In February 1626 France signed a treaty with Spain at Monzon
        • This was just as Buckingham was hoping France would join the war effort
          • Buckingham made contact with the French aristocracy who also wanted to remove the cardinal
            • An English fleet would be sent
    • Anglo-French War, 1627-1629
      • Expeditions to La Rochelle to support Huguenots
        • First Expedition, June 1627
          • Buckingham spent £10,000 of his own money on the expedition. The capture of French prizes and the forced loan also financed it
          • Buckingham would lead the expedition
            • He was not experienced in military affairs and as he did not receive adequate backing from England, supplies failed to arrive
          • The plan was to capture the island of Rhe which guarded the approach to La Rochelle
            • This would encourage a general uprising by the Huguenots
          • Hopefully this would lead to Richelieu's downfall or change of policy
          • This achieved nothing, causing another expedition to take place in November
        • Second and Third Expeditions, April & October 1628
          • An expedition to relieve La Rochelle as it was under seige by Louis' troops
          • Led by Buckingham's brother-in-law, the Earl of Denbigh
          • The second expedition was even more of a failure
          • La Rochelle fell to the French King's forces on the third expedition
    • The Death of Buckingham, August 1628
      • Charles never forgot the scenes of rejoicing in the House of Commons
        • He lost heart for any further adventured in Europe to support Protestant causes or his brother-in-law
    • The End of the Wars with Spain and France
      • Peace with France was made with France in the treaty of Suza in April 1629
        • This was a tactic agreement to bury the past
      • The Treaty of Madrid was signed in November 1630 with Spain
        • Philip IV gave a written promise that he would agree to the restoration of the Palatinate as part of a general settlement
    • The Effects of the Wars of the 1620's
      • It put a lot of strain on the counties
        • Charles had to raise forced loans and the Deputy Lieutenants had to collect troops who were fed and housed by the counties until they were transported to the ports
          • This was also at the counties' expense
    • Foreign Affairs during the Personal Rule, 1629-1640
      • Relations with Spain
        • Throughout the 1630's Charles favored Spain more, seeing them as potential friends
        • The Spanish were keen to break the Anglo-Dutch alliance as in 1628 the Spanish were seized
        • Spanish ships captured by the Dutch were moored in English ports, but the Spanish were given back their ships by England
          • Privateer ships were allowed to be left in England and could attack Dutch ships
            • Co-operation between the countries occurred in late 1630
      • The Palatinate
        • In 1631 the opportunity arose to gain the Palatinate back
          • Sweden won a major battle in north Germany. This was the Protestants first major victory in the Thirty Years War
            • They wanted £200,000 to help get the Palatinate back, but Charles allowed silver to be taken back to Spain for funding
        • The Palatinate was not restored until the end of the Thirty Years War in 1648

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