Evidence provided from Pompeii and Herculaneum

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  • Created by: Alice
  • Created on: 07-04-13 11:12

Social Structure

Roman Social Orders (legal systems) - Always remain in this condition unless something big happens

Ingenui: Free men

  • privilaged and non privaleged members
  • senetorial and local elite
  • Plebs Humilus: humble
  • Plebs Media: rich

Libertini:

  • freeborn - usually not members of political elite
  • only citizens could hold positions within the political elite
  • many were engaged in some form of commerce
  • lived to show off their money; through plaques, inscriptions, etc
  • much evidence that the elite supplemented their income with commercial dealings beyond trade and agriculture

Ordo Decurionum: Pompeii's council

  • Had privilaged seating in ampitheatre
  • able to control public funds, public property and official public region
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Salutatio

- clients expected to go to patron to pay respect

- social standing ehanced by number of people who had visited them

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Libertini

Libertini: freed slaves

- those who purchases their liberty/freedom MANUMISSION

  • Saved money to buy freedom - however the ties between master and slave were never cut and usually became clients (bound by the law to perform duties to the patron)
  • example of a non-equal relationship but, it was mutually beneficial (weren't allowed to take patron to court
  • Female libertini: needed approval from patron before any commercial activity
  • couldn't participate in political life (but children could) BUT WERE ALLOWED RELIGION
  • female libertini: Usually very skilled, so they made tonnes moula and had nice houses
  • women couldn't become citizens, but children could
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Patron - Client Relationship

Super Patron = Emperor

Privilages and responsibilities hand in hand (needed to support patron in political elections)

e.g. Child of Numeruis Popidius Amphiatus made a member of town council after his father paid for the restoration of the Temple of Isis in AD63

  • evidence of using children to gain political office
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Patron - Client Relationship

Super Patron = Emperor

Privilages and responsibilities hand in hand (needed to support patron in political elections)

e.g. Child of Numeruis Popidius Amphiatus made a member of town council after his father paid for the restoration of the Temple of Isis in AD63

  • evidence of using children to gain political office
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Slaves

  • no protection under law
  • captured in conflit
  • born into slavery
  • essential in roman society (1/3 - 1/5 of population slaves)
  • treated as property
  • According to the archeologist Alston; slaves were considered as "things devoid of souls" "animals with voices"
  • manual labour, domestic chores, everything!
  • Slaves working in chain gangs had no choice of manumission whilst others assisted masters with financial and sexual relations with slave masters
  • Some were well educated + literate (these slaves were involved commerce, industry and admin)
  • social hierarchy within slave group
  • great variety in the status in household e.g. server and over stower had different status
  • Female slave NOT permitted to marry if she had children they belponged to slave owner
  • evidence: Slave stocks found in villa - shows brutality of treatment
  • rare to find tombstones for slaves
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Women

- run household + control finances

- more freedom than women in Rome

- engaged in public life

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women in public life

Poppaea Sabina - married emperor Nero

Managed own property and own affairs

Couldn't vote - made public declarations (progammata) however

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Women Categories

Upper Class: - literate, politcally active

Business Women - partnerships with husbands, profitable, run independently and wealthy e.g. Julia Felix

Lower Class - Mending clothes, making clothes, women could own and operate taverns, inns and bars e.g. Edifice of Emachi - guild of fullers

Slave women - Manmitted (e.g. bracelet)

  • Archeologists use lazor + Bisel to support point e.g. diet, what wealthy women consumed, had a different different therefore: different roles
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