• Created by: charlotte
  • Created on: 29-04-14 13:14

Principles: - Objective Setting is Critical

  • Specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, relevant, targeted, timely
  • About demonstrating results
  • Evaluation should be factored in from the start
  • Process should be continuous
  • How the campaign worked and how it was managed
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Role of Evaluation

  • To review activity performed (outputs)
    • What worked well?
    • What didn't?
    • What still needs to be done?
    • How might tactics be changed?
  • Review of results of activity (outcomes)
    • Which objectives achieved?
    • How well were objectives achieved?
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Hierarchy of Objectives

  • Stages
    • Relates to the three stages of persuasion - Awareness, acceptance, action
    • Is a progression
    • Sequencing of PR objectives from information, motivational to behaviour
  • Level of outcome
    • Knowledge/awareness (cognitive)
      • Target public to think about something
    • Attitudes/motivation (affective)
      • Target public to form particular attitude
    • Behaviour (conative)
      • Target public to act in particular way
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Concepts in Evaluating Media Coverage

  • Volume of coverage vs content
  • When no coverage = success
  • Meausres against campaign objectives
  • Useful to think inn context of objectives
    • Inputs
    • Outputs
    • Outcomes
    • Outtakes
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4 Schools of Evaluation

  • Results of good PR are intangible - impossible to measure
  • Size and number of press cuttings, increase = good, decrease = bad
  • Introduct a measure of volume against cost of advertising equivalent
  • Research - pre, post and during campaign - How client is viewed by target audience or by journalists, tracking research
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Barcelona Declaration of Measurement Principles

  • Evaluation one of live issues in PR
  • Discussed at consecutive international conferences in Barcelona, London, Madrid, Stockholm and Lisbon
  • Valid metric system developed
  • CIPR advise against AVE and ban it from their awards

1) Importance of goal setting and measurement

2) Measuring the effect on outcomes preferred to measuring outputs

3) Effect on business results can and should be measured

4) Media measurement requires quanitity and quality

5) AVEs not the value of public relations

6) Social media can and should be measured

7) Transparency and replicability are paramount to sound measurement

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Measures Tracked by Research

  • Objective Measures
    • Changes in behaviour, impact
    • Levels of awareness
    • Changes in attitude/opinion
    • Achievements
    • Media coverage - spread, circulation read, content/positive messages
    • Better value for money
  • Subjective Measures
    • Enthusiasm
    • Efficiency
    • Creativity
    • Initiative
    • Instinct
    • People chemistry
    • Innovation
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Why Evaluation?

  • Chore - but puts you in driving seat
  • Helps with accountability
  • Focuses effort, demonstrates effectiveness
  • Delivers cost efficiency, encourages good management
  • Expectations - eoncourages realistic promises
  • Aggregate - Important to measure alongside other communications methods
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  • Input - research, contacts, writing
  • Outputs - circulation who read it, where it appeared
  • Outcomes - changes delivered
  • Outtakes - things influenced by outputs that may not deliver objectives but help
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Measuring Communications on 3 Impact Levels

  • Outputs - Reach, content
    • Frequency, visits, prominence, reader contacts, tonality, message impact, share of voice, journalist inquiries, impact on media/channels
  • Outcomes - Knowledge, opinions
    • Awareness, comprehension, recollection, recognition, credibility, image changes, recommendations, purchasing intentions, impact on target groups
  • Business results - Added value
    • Revenue/turnover, brand value, reputation value, price-effort ratio, market share, stock price, employee retention, impact on organisations
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Social Media Measurement

  • Online media, email, blogs, fb
  • All different and more or less achieve need to evaluate and assess the internet presence of these wishing to evaluate
  • Evaluating websites - information about the site, site content, site reach, constituents and relationships it enjoys
  • Site - construction, content, often updated, ISP or host, spelling, broken link
  • Reach - ranking with search engines, online media aware of site, references in newsgroups, hyperlinks
  • Constituents - who is the site aimed at, active, aware, latent in repsect to your issues
  • Newsgroups - frequency of use, range of topics discussed, moderation
  • Packages and tools
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6 Decisions for Review

1) Continue or stop the programme

2) Improve the practices or procedures

3) Add or remove strategies or techniques

4) Institute similar programme elsewhere

5) Alocate resources amongst several

6) Accept or reject an approach or theory

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Issues - Barriers to Evaluation

  • Lack of time
  • Lack of personnel
  • Lack of budget
  • Cost
  • Doubts about usefulness
  • Lack of knowledge
  • Can expose performance to criticism
  • Aversion to scientific methodolgy
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Other Uses of Research in PR

  • Content/Collateral in Print/Online
  • Content/Collateral for media relations
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Not Just Evaluation Stage

Research is a kay part of the ANALYSIS stage of PR planning

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