A reduced form often marked by an apostrophe in writing. Example: Can't, She'll.
Items which don't carry conventional meanings, but which an inserted in speech to allow time to think, to create a pause or to hold a turn in conversation. Also called a voiced pause. Example: er, um, ah.
Words that refer backwards or forwards or outside a text, like a verbal pointing. Very dependent on context. Exampe: this, that, here, there.
Occurs when someone flouts one of Grice's maxims. Example: Person A: Hello, how are you? Person B: Mmm, those carrots look delicious.
Language in conversation used for interpersonal reasons and/or socialising.
Language to get things done or to transmit content or information. Example: When two people are exchanging goods.
When the speaker begins an utterance, then stops and either repeats or reformulates it. Sometimes called self- correction. Example: Well, when I (.) when I...."
Words, phrases and non-verbal utterances used by a listener to give feedback to a speaker. Example: I see, oh, uh huh, really.
The ways in which words are pronounced: it can vary according to the region or social class of the speaker.
The distinctive grammar vocabulary which is associated with a regional or social use of language.
Feedback given by a listener to the speaker to let the speaker know he or she is being listened to and to encourage him or her to continue. Example: How interesting, do continue with your story.
These include stress, rhythm, pitch, tempo, intonation and other features used to mark out key meanings in a message. Essentially, how something is said.
A use of language in a social context in which the speakes normally follow a set of agreed rules and conventions. Example: Telling a joke or buying a book.
Refers to what is done when something is said. It can be used when threatening, promising, warning, requesting. Example: I declare this meeting open.
An indirect speech act has a meaning that is different from its apparent meaning. Example: Is that your coat on the floor? This may be more than just a question.
Conversation utterance that have no concrete purpose other than to establish or mantain personal relationships. Related to small talk and follows traditional patterns with stock responses and formulaic expressions. Example: How are you? Alright thanks.
Non fluency features
Typical and normal characterstics of spoken language that interrupt the "flow" of talk. Examples: hesitations, false starts, fillers, overlaps, interruptions and repetition. However, repetition can also be used for emphasis.
An individually distinctive way of speaking. Example: George W Bush "they misunderestimated me".
Words or phrases which soften or weaken the force with which something is said. Also called modifiers or qualifiers. Examples: perhaps, maybe, possibly.
Related to body language: the use of gestures, facial expressions and other non verbal elements (for example, laughing) to add meaning beyond the words conveyed.
A social dialect or variety of speech used by a particular group, such as working class or upper class speech.
Utterances that often occur in pairs. Often question and answer or introduction and greeting. Example: How are you? Good thankyou.
The omission or slurring of one or more sounds or syllables. Example: gonna, wannabe, wassup.
The omission of part of a grammatical structure. Coveys a more casual tone. Example: You going out? Might be.
Strings of words normally added to a declarative sentence to turn the statement into a question. Example: It's hot in here, isn't it?