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English Terminology
Metaphor ­ a figure of speech where two things are concisely compared by saying that one
thing is the other. e.g. `Denmark is a prison!'

Simile ­ an explicit comparison usually using the word `like' or `as' e.g. `as thick as thieves'

Dramatic effect ­ effects created by…

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Adjacency pairs ­ a pair of utterances from different speakers where the second speaker is
controlled by the first speaker's utterance. This occurs in a questionanswer format or when
one person greets another.

Length of Turn ­ this refers to the length of a participant's speech. The person with the…

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Demotic ­ everyday, ordinary language. The term `prosaic' is also used to refer to
commonplace speech.

Gatekeeper ­ a person with the power to control the discourse, governing the turntaking or
the ritual, e.g. a judge in court.

Parallelism ­ this occurs when utterances are parallel (similar) in form, e.g.…

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Blank verse ­ unrhymed verse, usually with ten syllables to a line, with alternative unstressed
and stressed beats.

Iambic pentameter ­ this is the commonest blank verse metre. An iamb is a metrical foot of
two syllables, short then long, first unstressed then stressed. Five of these create a

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Convergence ­ when a speaker wants to show orientation with another speaker they may
change their normal speech, perhaps by adopting a more formal or higher prestige form
(upward convergence) or by adopting an informal register (downward convergence). The
opposite is divergence, where a speaker wants to isolate themselves from…


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