Quality: the speaker is truthful, he/she only says what he/she believe is true only say what he/she has evidence for.
Quantity: of information, as much as required, no more information than required.
Relation: He/ she makes their contribution relevant
Manner: he/she is clear, avoids unnecesary prolixity, avoid ambiguity, brief and orderly.
Tact: he/she minimise cost to others, maximise benefit to others
Generosity: he/she minimise the benefit to himself/herself
Approbation: he/she maximise praise/ approval of the other, minimise dispraise towards himself/herself
Modesty: he/she minimise praise of himself/ herself.
Sympathy Maxim:explains to minimize hostility(or hatred, aversion) between self and other and maximize sympathy between self and other.
Brown and Levinson's
Politeness means showing respect for the person your'e talking to- whether the exchange is formal or informal. We need to respect the other person's face needs.
Positive face needs= speaker wants to be liked and approved of. VIA greetings, compliments, appropriate terms of address. :)
Negative face needs= speaker does not want contributions to be met with resistance, speaker wraps up unpleasant requests or orders by using hedges & apologies/ speaker wants to avoid face threatening behaviour. :(
We need to respect- relative status, social distance and social solidarity between participants in a conversation and be responsible to the social and cultural context.
Brown and Levinsons
Positive politeness:)=speaker can claim common ground with other speakers and convey his/hers assumptions that all participants wish to be co-operative.
Via pay attention to the other participants- speaker shows interest/ sympathy/ approval, seek agreement- choose safe topics, avoid disagreement- pretend to agree/ use white lies/ hedge his/hers own opinions, presuppose or assert common ground, make jokes, assume or assert agreement between each other.
Negative politeness :(= Speaker is indirect- Don't think/ assume anything, speaker doesn't force their argument/ point or impose on the other person.
Via Speaker is indirect, question and hedge, be pessimistic, give deference, be apologetic to the hearer.
Eggins and Slade
Women engaged in gossip more than men. Eggins and slade suggested that gossip is a way of asserting social unity.
They suggest that:
- Women don‟t tell naughty stories Stories in which speakers show themselves in fearful, embarrassing or humiliating situations are far more likely to be told by women than men.
- Male speakers seem to prefer to feature as heroes in stories which are about danger, violence, heroic deeds etc. In our culture men do not usually tell stories about their own fears and failures.
- Women present a mundane world where problems can be shared and usually where something is being „done‟ to the protagonist rather than by the protagonist.
- Women relate incidents in which they violate social norms and are scared or embarrassed as a result.
Brown and Levinson's
Threatening negative face wants: action such as an order or request.
Threatening positive face wants: by disregarding the listener’s feelings such as through criticisms or accusation.