Language and power

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What are Fairclough's 3 key theories on power in writing
Synthetic Personalisation, Members' Resources, Building Consumer
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What does synthetic personalisation mean?
When you build relationships between the text producer and writer via the use of personal pronouns i.e 'you or your' (Fairclough)
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What does Members' Resources mean?
The idea of creating an image of the text based on the predicted shared or background knowledge of the targeted reader (fairclough)
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What does Building Consumer mean?
The idea of positioning the receiver as the ideal reader and therefore consumer of product. (Fairclough)
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Power in discourse and Power behind discourse Fairclough
How power is manifested in language and the pragmatic/ ideological reasons behind power
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Fairclough says about speech
Power relationships give rise to dominant participants and thus also less dominant ones. Power Asymmetry
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Wareing
Language represents: Political, Personal or Social Group power
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David Oglivy
Said there is a basic lexicon of qualifiers such as new, good, crisp, better, natural and of verbs such as buy, give taste, go. As well as use of special registers (ABS 430BHP etc) as well as special lexical usage based on product, image and audience
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Grice's maxims
Quality, Quantity, relevance, manner
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Brown and Levison
Face Theory (positive, negative, bald on-record and indirect politeness)
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Face and FTA's
face is the self respect each participant holds for themself in an interaction, and FTA compromisees said face
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Giles' accomodation theory
convergence: changing speech to relate to participants, over-accommodating changing speech to the point of being patronising, Divergence: deliberately altering speech to distance self from participants
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Coulthard & Sinclaire
Initiation, Response, Feedback (classroom)
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Qualifiers
words that come before and adjective/adverb that increase or decrease the quality of the following word. e.g. the pretty old cabinet
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A speech act is
A use of language in which action is inplied
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Superlative adjectives, assonanance, Allusion, Mitigation
adjectives that compare, biggest, best, cheapest. Repetition of vowel sounds in words. reference to other products works etc. Softening the bluntness of a statement/ comand
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Key Questions
Who leads, who chooses topic, who talks most, who interupts (who backs down), who makes judgements. what do people really mean?
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Discourse and pragmatic framework
How dioes dialogue reflect 'mind set' and social relationships. Consider turn taking, agenda, topic management, forms of adress, implied meaning. Think about social function not just surface meaning
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Grammatical framework
Standard or non standard english. Grammar sentence types especially minor sentences and non-fluency features
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Semantic framework
what meaning does each speaker contribute? most common utterance type, questions, commands, jokes, confessions etc.
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Lexical framework
what kinds of vocab is used. Register, formality colloquialisms, specialist lexis, personal or impersonal, literal or figurative
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Phonetic framework
likely sound features. intonation, stress, tempo, rhythm and pauses.
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Bald on-record
No effort to reduce impact of FTA's either rude, between friends or in an emergency.
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Positive politeness
tries to minimise distance can i borrow a pen please, You must be hungry how about some lunch?
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Negative politeness
assumes you are imposing upon the hearer, I'm sorry but could I borrow a pen please?
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Off Record
"I'm looking for a comb" here the speaker is hoping they will not have to ask directly
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Card 2

Front

What does synthetic personalisation mean?

Back

When you build relationships between the text producer and writer via the use of personal pronouns i.e 'you or your' (Fairclough)

Card 3

Front

What does Members' Resources mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does Building Consumer mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Power in discourse and Power behind discourse Fairclough

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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