A term used to denote nouns that have no physical qualities (courage, idea).
A word that defines attributes of a noun (the blue flower) and that can express contrasts of degree (the smaller boy was the fastest).
A word that describes the action of the verb (the girl laughed loudly).
A term to denote words, phrases or clauses that function as adverbs.
The repetition of consonants, especially at the beginning of words.
The technique of giving human characteristics and form to what is not human (i.e an animal, object or value). See personification.
A rhetorical device in which opposites are contrasted to emphasise a point or persuade (I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him).
Words that are opposite in meaning (hot/cold, fast/slow).
The repetition of the same or similar vowel sounds.
The linking of linguistic units without a conjunction (The girl sang quickly, hesitantly,fearfully).
A verb that preceded the lexical verb in a verb phrase (I can go, I have gone).
The break or pause in a line of verse, often marked by punctuation. It is often used to slacken the stiffness of formal metrical patterns (i.e to imitate colloquial speech) or to bring dramatic emphasis.
A group of words, usually with a finite verb, which is structually larger than a phrase. Clauses may be described as independent (main) or dependent (subordinate).
An image that has become meaningless because of overuse (we'll leave no stone unturned).
The construction and addition of new words to the existing word stock.
A noun that refers to a group of people,animals or things (family, government).
Two or more words that frequently occur together as part of a set phrase.
Characteristic of informal spoken language.
A noun that refers to general group of objects or concepts (table,happiness).
The form of an adjective telling us the degree of a particular quality (louder, more intelligent).
A sentence made up of one main and one or more subordinate clauses.
A sentence made up of at least two main clauses joined together by a co-ordinating conjunction.
A noun that refers to physical things like people, objects, places or substances.
A sentence adverb with a linking function (however,otherwise).
The associations attached to a word in addition to its dictionary definition.
The social circumstances in which speech and writing take place.
A shortened word (can't, you're).
A word that joins elements of equal rank (and,or,but).
A noun that refers to things that can be counted and that have a plural form (cats,lorries).
A grammatical mood used to express a statement (I live in a flat).
Terms used to denote words or expressions that rely on the context to convey meaning (now,over,there,you).
The dictionary definition of a word.
A language marked by distinctive grammar and vocabulary, which is used by a group of speakers with common regional or social backgrounds.
Language interaction with two or more participants.
The actual words spoken by a person which are recorded in a written form enclosed in quotation marks ("You know I love books, she said).
Having two syllables.
A verb that expresses an action rather than a state and that can be used in the progressive (run/running, fly/flying).
The omission of sounds in connected speech.
The omission of a part of a sentence which can be understood from the context.
The arrangement of clause items so that attention is focused on the last word (The only person who can help you right now is me).
A term used to describe a line of verse in which there is a natural pause in the meaning of phrasing at the end of a line of poetry.
The overlapping of meaning from one line of verse to the next.
A word that replaces a term seen by society as taboo, socially unacceptable or unpleasant.
Apoetic unit of measure containing one or two stressed syllables and a variable number of unstressed syllables.
A change in the sequence of clause elements in order to draw attention to the first linguistic item (Bright was the morning).
A term used to describe consonants where air escapes through a small passage, making a hissing noise (v or f).
The role of words of phrases within a clause.
Applicable to an entire group.
The main element in a phrase.
Using language or fillers (like "um", "y'know", "sort of") that delay completion. Seen to show lack of status.
A line of verse containing six feet.
Words that are pronounced the same but have different meanings.
Exaggeration used to heighten feeling and intensity.
A unit of poetic metre containing one unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable.
An individual's own distinctive way of speaking.
A descriptive or metaphorical use of language which creates a vivid picture.
A grammatical mood expressing a directive (commanding, warning, requesting, inviting, pleading etc.) usually is no subject and the verb is in the base form.
(Go away, keep out, please give generously, bring a friend, help us).
An animate being that recieves the action of a verb (he gave her a present, the woman told the story to her neighbour.)
The words of a speaker reported in the form of a subordinate clause introduced by "that",(He replied that everyone was well), instead of being quoted directly.
A word or phrase adding emphasis (so, very, incredibly).
The repetition of rhymes within a line or verse.
A grammatical mood expressing a question in which the subject and verb are inverted (Are you ready?).
A question word used at the beginning of a clause to mark a question. Also known as a wh-word.
The quality of tone of the voice in speech.
There are three main forms of this concept:
1. Rhetorical irony - occurs when what is meant is the opposite of what the words appear to say.
2. Dramatic irony - occurs when a reader or audience gain a knowledge or understanding which a narrator or main character doesn't possess.
3. Situational or cosmic irony - when the outcome of events is the opposite to everything that had been predicted and prepared for.
Specialised technical terms.
A term used to describe constants articulated with the lips (m,p).
A term used to describe the consonants produced by touching the bottom lip to the upper teeth.
The process of change in a language over a period of time.
The term used to describe the vocabulary of a language. Also called lexicon.
A deliberate understatement.
A clause that is not dependant and makes sense on its own.
A misuse of words that sound similar (description for prescription).
A descriptive use of language in which one thing is directly seen in terms of another (a sea of troubles).
The term used to describe any language use that is non-literal, using devices like metaphor, similie and oxymoron to create poetic and descriptive effects.
The pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of verse.
A sentence or utterance that lacks one or more of the clause elements and that often occurs in an unchanging formulaic structure (Thanks. Great party!).
Auxiliary verbs that mark contrasts in attitude such as obligation, possibilty and predicition (can, may, must, will,shall).