elizabethan england

impacts of religious settlement

8000 accepted

most ordianry people accepted

BUT BISHOPS APPOINTED BY MARY TUDOR OPPOSED

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the royal injunctions

stated clergy had teach royal su[remacy and report people whp refused attend church

keep eng copy of bible

wear special clothes

ROLE OF CLERGY-

VILLAGES-conduct church services, offered practical advise

TOWNS-more people so more religious beliefs so more issues deal like poverty and disease

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role of church of england

enforce eliz religous settlement

preach govs message

guidance communities

legitaize her rule

visitaions-bishops attend church to inspect

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who were puritans

radical protestants

wanted purify religion

get rid anythingnot stated in bible

didnt want queen control

no bishops and priests dont wear vestemenst

world more godly place

worship graven idols

anti catholic

belived pope anti christ

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things they challenged eliz with

CRUXIFIXES-

so eliz didnt upset catholics wanted cruxifix in church

they opposed and puritan bishops threatened resign but eliz couldnt find ones with similar ability so backed down

VESTMENST-

as decsribed on royal injuctions eliz wanted clergy wear clothes described

they resisted wanted simple ones

1566 archbisjop canterbury thomas parker wanted priests attend exhibition showing vestments must wear

37 puritans resigned

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counter reformation

cathlic church attempt to reverse protestant reformation in europe

charged them with HERESEY -deny catholic church teachings

1566POPE ISSUED CATHOLICS DIDNT HAVE TO ATTEND VHURCH ENG SERVICE 

third eng nobilit recusants-practised catholics

WHY WERE CATHOLICS A THREAT

many nobility cath and from powerful families that likes mary tudor

snd resented loss of power under eliz and her annointed favourites liek DUDLEY

nobility in north very influencial and well placed to strat rebellion

many refused attend church

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catholic threat from abroard

most europes powerful countries catholic

FRANCE THREAT

1562-religious war broke out with france and eliz backed french protestants hoping take bck calais in return

FAILED-FRECH CATH AND PRO MADE PEACE

eliz cant afford to upset france

SPAIN THREAT

1566-Dutch rebelled against span occupation and eliz condemmed sea begger and rebels come to emg nut they still did

span atrcoities aganst protestants put her under pressure to shelter them 

spain angry after eng seizure of GENOESE LOAN 1568:

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Threats from abroad

italian city lent gold to span gov,the ships accrying loan sheltered by eng ships

eliz seized it and argued belonged to italian bankers not span

AND

1570-span ruled netherlands was secure and eng feared invasion as span troopes nearby

mary queenof scots alternative cath monarch encoiraged spain plot agoanst eliz

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why did the pope pose threat

counter reformation

after northern earl revolt he dissaproved eliz atempt to supress cath

excommunicated her 1570 and could encoirage spain 

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mary queen of scots

WHY A THREAT-

legitamate claim-eliz legitamcy questionsed after henrys divporse from catherine and many saw henry and anne marriage illgeitamate

eliz 2nd cousin

married francis 11

catholic many nobility supported

mary was centre many plots overthrow eliz

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why was she imprisoned

death husbad 1560 returned to scotland

married lord darnley produced james

darnely murdered-possibly involved

married east bothwell

1568 people rebelled against her and she was imprisoned and force to ABDICATE THRONE 

ESCAPED AND RAISED ARMY

DEAFEATED GLASGOW

FLED ENG SEEK ELIZ HELP

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what happened whilst imprisoned 1568

held in comfort under guard

eliz couldnt decide what to do

scot rebeld demand tried for treason

WHY WAS MARYS ARRIVAL A PROBLEM

she encouraged rebellion

to take action against mary would redice eliz power and authority

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what were eliz options

HELP MARY REAGAIN THRONE-would anger scot nobility and leave her facing mary on c=northern border

she could seek alliegnec with france and threaten her

HAND TO SCOTTISH LORDS-but former wife francis and her treatemt of her could provoke france

france and spain form alliance

ALLOW MARY ABROAD-could return france, provoke french plot

KEEP IN ENGLAND-best option BUT risk cath plotters

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casket letter affair

1568 meeting in york

case against mary

scot lords brought letters maru guility murder

MARY SAID ANNOINTED MONARCH SO CANT BE TRIEDSAID WOULDNT OFFER PLE UNLESS ELIZ GURANTEED VERDICT OF INNOCNEC

ELZI REFUSED BUT DIDNT HAND HER FOR TRIAL 

WHY-so scot woulndt execute mary, french satisfied

conference reached no conclusion

mary reaimed eng and reamined threat

eliz didnt make her heir as didnt want to upset privy coundil pro 

civil war if eliz died

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plot and revolts at home 1569-70 northern earls

wanted eng cath again

resented JAMES PIKLINGTON PROT BISHOP DURAHM

losty lots influence under eliz and resnted willima ceceil dudley et

eliz refused make mary heir so furure uncertain and less power under anther prot monarch and they feared civil war

REBELS-

CHARLES NEVILLE-earl westmoorlad and major cath landowner JANE NEVILLE WIFE

THOMAS PERCY-earl northumberland ANN PERCY WIFE

THOMAS HOWARD-senior noble and prot WITH FAM LINKS TO old NORTHERN CATH FAMILIES-JANE NEVILLE SISTER 

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duke of norfolk

marriage plan to marry mary and remove eliz

robert dudley told eliz and he was arrested

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revolt progress

northumberland and westmoorland would continue to revolt

TOOK CONTROL DURAHM CATHEDRAL AND CELEBRATED MASS THERE AMD IN OTHER NORTHERN CHURHCES

began moving south

eliz moved mary to coventry to stop her joining rebles

REBELD CAPTURED HARTELEPOOL TO RECIVE HEP FROM SPAIN UT IT NEVER ARRIVED

WHY DID IT FAIL?

support spain never arrived,many nprthern aldnwoners LIKE LANCASHIRE remained loyal to eliz 

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why was the revolt significant

showed that mary couldnt be trusted and so remained imprisoned

pope excommuincated her with encoiraged further cath plots

loyalty of eng cath in doubt and gov had to take harsh steps against them

eliz control over northern eng therefore stregthened

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whst led to the ridolfi plot 1571

the failiure of northern earls meant eliz ttreated caths with suspicion

earl huntingdon-prot-led council of north and implemeneted laws against acths in norht

THIS ANGERED THEM

PREPRED TO PLOT AGAIAN WITH POPES BACKING

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Rdolfi plot 1571

ROBERTO RIDOLFI italian banker libed eng worked as spy for pope

1571-plotted eliz murder-start span invasion and putmary on throne and mary duke norfolf

1571-travelled netherlands discuss plot with pope philip and duke alba

had letter signed by norfolf who pledged to lead rebellion with phillip support

phillip instricted alba preapre 10000 troops across eng channel to support

1571 PLOT DISCOVERED WILLIAM CECEIL

NORFOLK HIGH TREASON

RIDOLFI NEVER CAME TO ENG

1572 PARLAIMENT DEMANDED EXECUTION MARY AND NORFOLF 

NORFOLF EXECUTED JUNE 1572

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why didnt eliz execute mary

anger end catholics, and france and pain against her

WHY WAS THE PLOT SIGNIFICANT

reinforced spanish threat

eng needed imrpve realtions with france as eng couldnt fight 2 countries

confirmed mary still a threat and gove monitured cath more closley

2 LAWS PASSED 1581-FAMILIES FINED FOR SHELTERING PRIESTS AND CHARGED TTEASON IF CONVERT PEOPLE CATHOLIC

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throckmorton plot 1583

french duke guise plotted invade eng overthrow eliz

free mary

phillip offered pay for revolt and pope approved

throckmorton young englishman would pass letters between plotters and mary

WHY DID IT FAIL

SIR FRANCIS WALSINGHAM-ELIZ SECRETARY OF STAE DISCOVERED PLOT 1583

NOV 1583-HIS SPIES FOUND LETTERS IN THROCKMORTON HOUSE

ARRESTED AND TORTURED

CONFESSED AND EXECUTED MAY 1584

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why was it significant

revealed extent pf threat from catholics

 the papers found revealed cath sympathisers in eng wich heightned gov fears of enemies within country

many caths fled eng

11000 men imprisoned

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what was the babington plot 1586

duke guise incade eng mary on throne KILL ELIZ

phillip and pope supported

ANTHONY BABAINGTON WROTE TO MARY ABOUT CONSPORACY 1586

FRANCIS WALSINGHAM READ LETTERS 2 MARY in beer barrels

THIS PROVED HER SUPPORT

BAB AND PLOT SENT DEATH

oct 1586 marys ent to death despote eliz initially heistant but signed ceath warrant feb 1587

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why was it significant

eliz situation more precarious

1585 eng and spian virtually at war

persecution of caths intensitified

31 priests executed 1586

marys excution ended hope to replace eliz with cath monarch

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francis walsingham

eliz secreatry of state was a netwrokf of spies and informers that uncovered plots

run by francis

WHY WAS HE IMPORTANT

his actions provided intelligence that defeated plots and pur pressure on eliz to execite her

huge network spies in europe and every town

some trained by gov 

resonsible for torturing plotters

used ciphers -letters written in code and deciphered when recived meaning he  could decode plots against eliz hire specialiss like THOMAS PHELIPPERS

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WHY DID he use torture

deter others and force to give up info

130 priests and 60 sipporters of plots were put to death

threats were effective as provided him with imfo could use against them

ONLY TORTURED IN SERIOUS CASES DIDNT WANT NORMAL PEOPLE TO SYMPATHISE WITH PLOTTERS

AGENT PROVOCATUERS-employed to encoirage those seen as threat to eliz tomplot against her which the justified there arrest

eg, gilbert gifford to open communication between ,ary and baingotn plotters and this encoirage mary to get involve

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why was mary executed

involved in plots

spies unearthed evidence wich led to her trial and conviction under act of preservation of queens safety

1587-span threat INCREASED rumours of unvasion

phillip had been involved in plots

reamined rallying point for cath who saw her as legit queen

pope excommunicating eliz wanted may queen

could take throne vis foreign incasion

cathlic so-heir so threatened prot succession and possible cicvil war

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why was it significant

left eliz without heir more chance of civil war on er death

REMOVED THREAT FROM HER HOWVERE NO ALTERANTIVE MONARCH AS AJMES COULD ONLY BE KING IF MARY SURVIVED

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religious and political rivalry with spain

religious-

under mary tudor were allies not now, had pope backing and saw prots as threat,phillip involved plots

 SPANISH RELIGIPUS POLICY IN NETHERLANDS-

simce 1400 belonged spain

but many dutch became prot

BRITAL SPAN CAMPAIGN UNDER DUKE ALBA aim restore catholism

span cath executed ducth prot following COUNCIL OF TROUBLES 1568

angered eliz gov saw spain as hostile and direct thtreat to eng prot

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how did english respond

gov secretary helped dutch prot resist-allowed dtch dea beggers afe passage eng ports

provided financila support to those fighting spanish 

eng privateers like drake encoiraged attcks on span ships and colonies

eliz proposed marriage FRENCH HEIR SUKE ALNECON so might help fight

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pacification of ghent

francis fury incraesed as result of span occupation in neheralands

was expenive and after months of being unpaid spanish forces reblled and raided ducth city antwerp KLLED  MANY PEOPLE

PACIFICATION OF GHENT 1576

list of demands drawn up by dutch after SPAN fury

ALL SPAN FURIES WITHDRAW FROM NETHERLANDS

END OF RELIGIOUS PERSECUTIONPOLITICAL INDEPENDENCE NETHERLANDS RESTORED

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pacification of ghent

francis fury incraesed as result of span occupation in neheralands

was expenive and after months of being unpaid spanish forces reblled and raided ducth city antwerp KLLED  MANY PEOPLE

PACIFICATION OF GHENT 1576

list of demands drawn up by dutch after SPAN fury

ALL SPAN FURIES WITHDRAW FROM NETHERLANDS

END OF RELIGIOUS PERSECUTIONPOLITICAL INDEPENDENCE NETHERLANDS RESTORED

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pacification of ghent

francis fury incraesed as result of span occupation in neheralands

was expenive and after months of being unpaid spanish forces reblled and raided ducth city antwerp KLLED  MANY PEOPLE

PACIFICATION OF GHENT 1576

list of demands drawn up by dutch after SPAN fury

ALL SPAN FURIES WITHDRAW FROM NETHERLANDS

END OF RELIGIOUS PERSECUTIONPOLITICAL INDEPENDENCE NETHERLANDS RESTORED

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spanish commerical rivalry 1570s

commercial rivalry

1570s-eng and spain were commercail-trade- rivals

competed for access to markets and resources of new rold and turkey russia etc

spain conquered mexico and perus early 1500s so spian had alot of gold and silver 

it also gave them control over trade in sugar cane and tobacco indusry as resouces grown here

ENG HOSTILITY TOWARDS SPAIN

spai had a major eng barrier as spain controlled metherlands many principal trade roites were closed off wich would have been previously used y englsih 

THIS REDUCED ENG INCOME AND PROFIT

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commerical rivalry

spains control of new world denied them making proft and opportunities

all trades had been licensed to span gov

THEREFORE ENG TRADERS HAD TO FIND NEW WAY ,AMKING MONEY WICH COULD MEAN CONFLICT WITH SPAN GOV

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Privateering

eng merchants fimncaned by private investors like queen raided span colonies and ships voyaing from new world

1 raid by drake he captured 1572 40 000 in span silver

his 2nd expedition 1577-80 400 000 silver and gold

eliz encouraged dutch rebels to attack span ships sailing between spanin and netherlands

1580 loss of silver meant span gov in netherlands bankrupt and could afford pay soldiers

MORE ACTIONS LEADING TO WAR

eliz knighting drake showed her difiance against spain as phullip hate drake

phullip thought only way drake gine was by war and protect span commerial interests

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more events leading to war

drake raided span fleet at caidz and eliz support dutch rebels 

1587 detroyed 30 ships

TREATY NONSUCH 1585eng pay 7400 soldiers led by ducley to enthelands to work with dutch rebels wich led to

THE CAMPAIGN IN NETHERLANDS

not success

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armada

since 1586 span had been building armada bur attck on cadiz delayed by year

meant eng could reppare for invasion

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why did phillip launch armada

POLITICS AND DIPLOMACY

TReaty of joinville 1584 with france eman could attck eng without war with france

treaty nonsuch eng soldiers at war wth spain so phillip could jistify attack eng

of span won eng would be useful addition to empire

RELIGIOUS CONFLICT

already involved plots

another opportunity to remove her

pope backing 

pope promised absolution would forgive sins of those taking part armada

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why did phillip launch armada

CHANGING CIRCUMSTANCES

spain accuired portugal 1580 so he has access to ports and ships

eliz iitail weakness back dutch rebels showed weakness

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what was is strategy

ordered armda 130 ships and 2431 guns and sail along eng shannel to netherlands

ships join forces span troop under suke parma and transport 27000 troops to kent

span army would attack london end eliz reign 

WHY SUCH A THREAT

eliz loose crown and restoration catholism

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what happnened

29 july armada spotted

31 july battel of plymouth 2 span ships captured

3-4 augustbattle of isl of wight where soan ships outgunned by eng

8 aug battle of gravelines eng lsucnhed firships made span fleet panic

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why did england win

WEATHER

strong winds destroyed ,any ships

SPANISH PANICKED

key turning point-battle gravelines

they cut anchors and then there ships drifted north sea

COMMUNICATION ISSUES

no communication between parma and medina no deep water ports

ENGLISH SHIPS BETTER EQUIPPED

cannons mounted  and could reload quicker

this dmaged many ships and undermined span chaces pf invading eng and meeting with parma

DRAKES USE FIRESHIPS CAUSED THEM TO PANIC

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consequences for eng victory

eng navy strengthened

showed navy strenght and boosted confidence to explore

encourage merchants to trade with europe

eliz authprity enchanced and could portray herdlef as millitary victor

europe alliances strengthened-

anglo dutch allainces

portestantism netherlands

and protestantism in europe 

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consequences for spain

major millitary and finacila setback

spanish prestige brken and other countries became more willing to challnege s[aons power

led to gradual derase of span empire

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