Effects of the Spanish Civil War

On Spain and Internationally

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  • Created by: Rosa
  • Created on: 24-02-11 09:29

Effects on Spain

Social

Economic

Political

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Social

  • 100 000 Republicans and 70 000 Nationalists killed
  • White Terror launched after war to prevent uprisings from opposition: estimated 40 000 - 200 000 killed
  • Republicans or sympathisers sent to prison/for 're-education'
  • 500 000 Spaniards fled to neighbouring countries during the terror
  • 1946: Famine, agriculture had not been modernized
  • Government ruled through terror and propaganda
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Economic

  • 10-15% of wealth destroyed through the war - led to high inflation
  • Income was 28% lower per capita in 1939 than in 1935
  • 70% of Madrid's factory machinery needed replacing, communications and tram networks needed replacing
  • A third of merchant ships had been destroyed- unable to export as much
  • Lack of skilled workers, labour shortages
  • Despite recovery during WWII (remained neutral), Spain was exploited by Germany for resources and demands for payment for its aid
  • Remainted an agricultural economy - landowners didn't want modernization

However, during Cold War Spain became less isolated and modernized during 1950-60's

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Political

  • It was "as if it was a country occupied by a victorious foreign army" (Preston)
  • Franco remained dictator until he died in 1975
  • White terror presented as 'saving the country from Communism'
  • 1939: Law of Political Responsibility passed- Republicans liable to punishment for their role in the war, land taken form them, not allowed jobs, large fines/death penalty
  • Wages of working classes cut, industrial activity outlawed, trade unions destroyed
  • Civil Guard used to repress revolts
  • World War Two: defeat of fascism, Franco more vulnerable, King restored and Franco made Head of State
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International Effects

USSR and Communism

Germany and Italy

Britain and France

USA

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USSR and Communism

  • Communism and the USSR had been undermined
  • Supporters in the rest of Europe became disillusioned
  • Increased hostility between Soviets and Germany
  • Change in Stalin's foreign policy: had to persue appeasement since collective security had failed and the West had been unwilling to get involved
  • 1939: Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
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Germany and Italy

  • German army had been tested and strengthened: Blitzkrieg used in Spain highlighted importance of air power, tanks shown to require improvement
  • Hitler and Mussolini's relationship strengthened
  • Italy would now allow/support German expansion in Eastern Europe 
  • 1938: Anchluss of Austria
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Britain and France

  • Appeasement considered the best policy: polarization led to the belief that there would be a war between fascism and communism and they would not be involved
  • Increased fear of war: civilian bombings in Guernica
  • Communism still perceived to be a greater threat than fascism
  • Hitler saw Britain as a weak power that could be exploited, lost respect - encouraged German agression 
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USA

  • Continued isolationism
  • 1946: Placed economic sanctions on Spain, excluded from Marshall Aid
  • Changed during the Cold War as Franco was strongly anti-USSR
  • 1951: American grant to Spain, US could use airbases, became an American ally and joined the UN
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