Effects of Lifestyle

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Effect of diet on the cardiovascular system

Positive:

Unsaturated fats decreases the build up of plaque and improves cholesterol level.

Negative:

Saturated fat increases the risk of heart disease. This is because the arteries become clogged.

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Effect of smoking on the cardiovascular system

Negative:

  • Smoking damages the heart
  • Carbon monoxide from the smoke and nicotine both put a strain on the heart by making it work faster.
  • Increases your blood pressure and heart rate, making your heart work harder than normal
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Effect of alcohol on the cardiovascular system

Positive:

  • Small amounts of alcohol prevent artery damage
  • Small amounts of alcohol prevent blood clots

Negative:

  • Increases the risk of heart disease
  • Causes high blood pressure
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Effect of exercise on the cardiovascular system

Positive:

  • Strengthens walls
  • Lower heart rate
  • Increase heart muscle
  • Increases blood volume
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Effect of air pollution on the cardiovascular syst

Negative:

  • Increases the risk of cardiovascular disease
  • Particulates in diesel exhaust can cause blood vessels to constrict, limiting blood flow.
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Effect of diet on the respiratory system

Positive:

Vitamin C decreases the chance of lung disease.

Negative:

A diet high in carbohydrates puts more stress on the respiratory system by requiring the lungs to release an abundance of carbon dioxide.

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Effect of smoking on the respiratory system

Negative:

  • Smoking can cause fatal diseases such as pneumonia, emphysema and lung cancer. 
  • Smoking causes unattractive problems such as bad breath and stained teeth, and can also cause gum disease and damage your sense of taste.
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Effect of alcohol on the respiratory system

Negative:

  • Chronic alcohol abuse disrupts the proteins that keep fluids out of the lung 
  • Lowers a protective antioxidant 
  • Disrupts immune defenses 
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Effect of exercise on the respiratory system

Postive:

  • Increase number of alveoli
  • Strengthens diaphragm and intercostal muscles
  • Increases vital capacity
  • Increase in gaseous exchange
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Effect of air pollution on the respiratory system

Negative:

  • Increases risk of asthma
  • Increases risk of lung cancer
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Effect of diet on the digestive system

Positive:

High fibre diet keeps food moving in your digestive system, which can prevent a number of diseases.

Negative:

Fatty foods slow down digestion, making a person prone to constipation.

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Effect of smoking on the digestive system

Negative:

  • Smokers have an increased chance of getting stomach cancer or ulcers. 
  • Smoking can weaken the muscle that controls the lower end of your gullet (oesophagus) and allow acid from the stomach to travel in the wrong direction back up your gullet, a process known as reflux.
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Effect of alcohol on the digestive system

Negative:

  • Increase risk of stomach cancer
  • Irritates stomach causing nausea, and vomiting.
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Effect of exercise on the digestive system

Positive:

  • Exercise strengthens the muscles of the abdomen and stimulates the intestinal muscles to move contents through the digestive system.

Negative:

  • Exercise such as running can cause digestive disorders. Disorders such as nausea and diarrhea are common in women runners who train hard. Acute gastris and gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms are also common in runners.
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Effect of air pollution on the digestive system

Negative:

  • Increases risk of inflamatory bowl diseases
  • High levels of ozone, the main ingredient of smog, were linked to an increased risk of a burst appendix
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Effect of diet on the renal system

Positive:

Water improves kidney function

Negative:

High protien diet for people who have kidney disease, causes the kidneys to strain and can cause protien toxicity.

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Effect of alcohol on the renal system

Negative:

  • Dehydration
  • Alcohol is a diuretic
  • Increases risk of kidney disease
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Effect of smoking on the renal system

Negative:

  • Smoking is a significant risk factor for developing kidney cancer, and the more you smoke the greater the risk.
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Effect of exercise on the renal system

Postive:

  • When you exercise, blood flow to your kidneys is diminished due to an increase in the activity of the sympathetic nervous system, the "fight or flight" component of the nervous system. This reduction in blood flow is necessary to maintain your blood pressure as blood vessels dilate in your working muscles. Because of the decrease in blood flow, the amount of fluid filtered by your kidneys also is reduced during moderate to intense exercise, resulting in decreased urine production.

Negative

  • You can lose significant amounts of fluid as well as some sodium in your sweat as you exercise. 
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Effect of air pollution on the renal system

Negative:

  • Long-term exposure to traffic pollution could be linked to kidney damage
  • Increase risk of renal faliure
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Effect of diet on the reproductive system

Positive:

Iron in the diet reduces the risk of anemia from heavy menstration.

Negative:

Annorexia/ starving yourself can lead to amenorrhea (lack of periods), which causes a person to become infertile.

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Effect of alcohol on the reproductive system

Negative:

  • Alcohol can affect women’s reproductive systems, and damage fertility. 
  •  Alcohol can reduce a man’s testosterone levels, leading to loss of libido.
  • It can also damage the quality, structure and movement of sperm by stopping the liver from properly metabolising vitamin A, which is needed for sperm development.
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Effect of smoking on the reproductive system

Negative:

  • Smoking can cause male impotence, as it damages the blood vessels that supply blood to the penis. 
  • It can also damage sperm, reduce sperm count and cause testicular cancer.
  • For women, smoking can reduce fertility.
  • Smoking also increases your risk of cervical cancer.
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Effect of exercise on the reproductive system

Postive:

  • Relatively short, intense exercise increases serum testosterone levels

Negative:

  • Too much exercise causes lack of periods
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Effect of air pollution on the reproductive system

Negative:

  • Decreases sperm count
  • Exposure to air pollutants during very early pregnancy (the time around conception) may adversely affect foetal growth
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Effect of diet on the musculo-skeltal system

Positive:

Calcium reduces the risk of osteoporosis

Negative:

Extreme dieting results in loss of muscle

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Effect of smoking on the musculo-skeltal system

Negative:

  • Smoking can cause your bones to become weak and brittle. 
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Effect of alcohol on the musculo-skeletal system

Negative:

  • Increases risk of osteoporosis
  • Inhibits the production of growth hormones
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Effect of exercise on the musculo-skeletal system

Positive:

  • Increase in bone density
  • Muscles get stronger
  • Joints are more stable
  • Muscle endurance improves
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Effect of air pollution on the musculo-skeletal sy

Negative:

  • Increases risk of osteoporosis
  • Restricts oxygen and blood flow to muscles
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Effect of diet on the neural system

Positive:

Eating 3 times a day improves concentraion, and omega-3 improves conginitve function

Negative:

Being obese decreases cognitive function

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Effect of smoking on the neural system

Negative:

  • If you smoke, you are more likely to have a stroke than someone who doesn't smoke.
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Effect of alcohol on the neural system

Negative:

  • Alcohol is a depressant, which means that it slows down the brain.
  • Alcohol also alters the brain’s chemistry and increases the risk of depression and anxiety.
  • Drinking heavily over a long period of time can also have long-term effects on memory.
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Effect of exercise on the neural system

Positive:

  • It increases heart rate, which pumps more oxygen to the brain.
  • It also aids the bodily release of a plethora of hormones, all of which participate in aiding and providing a nourishing environment for the growth of brain cells.
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Effect of air pollution on the neural system

Negative:

  • Increases risk of stroke
  • Linked to memory and learning problems
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