Problems in the Developing World
- Cannot afford primary education.
- Teachers aren't well paid, countries may struggle to train teachers well or take on teachers with below satisfactory qualifications.
- Schools are under-resourced
- Many schools are housed in inadequate buildings with limited facilities.
- Schools may charge fees which parents can't afford, or expect parents to pay for uniform/books.
- Education system/curriculum is often shaped by the experience of colonialism
- Many schools operate in double shifts - students don't get a full day / teachers are over worked.
- War can disrupt education
- Pupils may have a lot of time off due to illness.
- Not enough secondary places available
Education is essential.
Favour a Western style education system and curriculum to spread modern values.
Higher education is essential to train future political and business leaders.
The level of education is linked to the country's stage of economic growth.
The theory of Human Capital argues that investment in education can be a basis for modernization and that it can to some extent make up for shortage of money capital.
Education is a way to spread modern values, encourage entrepreneurial skills and break with traditional values that put a barrier on modernization.
Education is a practised as a form of cultural imperialism, imposing Western values.
Education is one of the main ways colonial powers exercised control over their colonies
Existing education systems were replaced by new systems which trained a small elite in the colonial powers' values an rewarded them with jobs.
The elite have a stake in the system and support it.
Copying Western style education today is not appropriate.
Should Universal Education Be a Priority?
Universal education in the North is associated with economic growth, rising living standards and improvements in health.
Ensures there are people with the skills and qualifications needed for the country's development.
It's a human right - gives people control over their lives, more difficult for them to be exploited.
Universal education of girls - improves health and nutrition of families, limiting the number of children per woman.
Where a country has limited resources, it may be better to educate a minority for leadership, if the majority do not need an education for their work.
Education may be something that cannot yet be afforded.
People may become more discontented and rebellious if they cannot use their education to improve their lives.