Education and Development
Education is seen as an essential strategy in the process of development, as the assumption is that education can reduce poverty, and contribute to economic growth.
The U.N. see education as an indicator of social development- Adult Literacy rates form a key part of the Human Development Index.
Modernisation theorists and education
M. theorists argue that education is essential to development, and a Western-style education system and curriculum will help create a human capital – providing a population with skills needed for industry.
Modern education provides skills that are need for an industrial take off on Rostow’s scale of development, as education enables the rapid transmission of western values, helping the process of development.
Shultz argues that investment in education is essential for development as it helps the economic growth of local industry.
An educated workforce will attract foreign companies to invest in developing countries. For example, many call centres are set up in India, because workers they attract have university degree’s and are fluent English speakers.
Hoselitz argues that western education is needed to pass on Western Values, and a meritocratic education systems help to speed up the spread of Western values such as competition and achievement.
Dependency theorists and education
D. theorists see the emphasis on Western education as a form of cultural imperialism through imposing Western values, and a form of neo-colonialism.
Western education was used as a form of social control by colonial powers. Watson argues that colonial powers saw education as a way of training local elites to help run their colonies. It was also a way of weakening indigenous culture.
Hick argues that colonialism has actually underdeveloped educational…