Case Stud- Temp. Dec. Woodland- Epping Forest

Where: NE greater london and essex

19km long North to South

4km wide

2,476 hectares

Lies on ridge between 2 river vallies- the lea and the Rodding 

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Case Study- Epping Forest- Function

Royal Forest from 12th Century

1882- dedicated by Queen Victoria to be 'The people forest'- managed by the city of london co-orporation

Now combines the role of scenic open space, important wildlife hbitat and recreational opportunities

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Case STudy- Epping Forest- Physical Characteristic

Ancient woodland, grassland, river, bogs and bonds

Woodland is mainly Beech trees with some Oak and hornbeam

Supports variety of wildlife:

  • Trees nesting sited for 48 species of birds eg. nightingale
  • Dead rotting wood- for stag beetles
  • Bogs and ponds habitat of wild fowl eg. mallards and moorhens
  • Grassland and trees home to grey squirrels, rabbits and fallow deer

Typical mild climate of NW Europe- warm damp summers and cool wet winters

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Case Study- Epping forest- Human Characteristics

Lots of footpaths for those wit limited mobility

50km of rides for horse riders and cyclists

60 football fitches

18 hole golf cource

field study centres

serveral pubs and cafés

Historic building eg. Queen Elizabeth Hunting Lodge (1543 by henry 8th)

Car parks

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Case Study- Epping forest- Use of woodland

Active Recreation: Walking, mountain biking, horse riding, fishing

Passive Recreation: Beautiful forest lots of seating, Jubilee pond 2002- picnics

Education: 3 forest centres eg. Epping forest field studies centre runs weekend cources and day cources on a range of natural history topics

Information centre

Organised Sport- football golf

Camp and caravan sites 

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Case Study- Epping forest- Management


  • cutting trees at shoulder height above level of animals (trees continues to support insects and mosses) 
  • Trees reshoot producing new wood for future cutting ensures supply of wood for future
  • Since 1981 over 1,000 trees have been pollarded to preserve them- without it crowns become top heavy and slit or topple


  • encourage grazing- maintain grassland- adds manure to soil- helps maintain some herbaceous plants- increases diversity of plants- food chain
  • If no grazing dormilant species like brambkes take over shading the soil- bluebells can't grow

Allowing old trees to die 

  • Rots adding nutrients to the soil for future growth of trees
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Case Study- Epping forest- Sustainable practices


  • 2/3 of the park had been designated a site of specual scientific intrest and a SCA 1600ha
  • Potects biodiversity under law, acient trees flora and flava are supported (500 rare insects)

Provison of amentities and footpaths

  • Car parks, toilets, refreshment facilities and footpaths are managed for recreation- forest centres and lodges
  • Foot paths and car park link to emenities encouraging visitors to use official footpath


  • The view is the visitor centre with interactive displays. High beach forest centres gives info- cources on natural science and geography
  • Horse riders have to be registered- schools need a license- mountain biking kept away from ecologically sensitive areas

Historical Heritage

  • Elizabethan manour 1543- hunting lodge- preserves culture and historical value
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Case Study- The Amazon- Reasons for deforestation

Road building- Trans Asmonian highway 1970s

Slash and burn- Traditional famer eg. Boro practicr shifting cultivation- clear small area and farm- burn- use ash as fertilisier- move on soil infertile no leaf litter- return in 20 years

Commercial Ranching- areas cleared for cattle grazing-350 ranches

Logging- commercial logging of hard wood trees like mahogany- solf furniture

Mineral Extraction- mining- Carajas- iron ore

Population pressure

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Case Study- Amazon- Rainforest Management

Selective Logging- 7-12 trees per hectare can be felled- need licence- machinery restrictesd

Forest Protection- Malaysian Government- Peranent Forest estates which are given special conversvation status


Reducing debt


Reducing demand for hardwoods

Education- Make company bosses and Politicians more aware of how forests work

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Found in a belt 30 n/s of the equator on the western coats of continents where air has risen then descends forming a belt of high pressre- Lack of rain and cloud

Hostile environment- Rainfall between 120-240mm/yr

July temp up to 53c

Frequent droughts 

Thar- Rajasthan- India

Stretches across NW india to Pakistan


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Case Study- Thar desert- soil

Generally sandy- not very fertile because little organic matter to enrich them

Soil drains quickly so is little surface water- high levels of evaporation

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Case Study- That- Adaptations


  • Expandable Stem: for storing water eg. Saguaro
  • Thick waxy coating- protects tissue from intense heat and light
  • Small leaves- reduce water loss- smaller surface area
  • No leaves- less water loss
  • Dense hairs- less water loss
  • Dormant seeds- short period of growth
  • ground hugging protects against wind- compact and low- stable
  • Shallow roots- trap water as soon as it rains before it evaporated
  • Succulent leaves- stores water- prickly pear cactus
  • Long roots- trap water from the water tablee
  • Short growing season- Mexican poppies grow only when rain falls
  • Grown far apart- not competing for resources
  • Detatchable root system- tumble weed- can move to areas of water so release seeds and germinate


  • Camel- flat feet- spread weight on sand. slit nostrels keep sand out
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Case Study- Sonoran

Arizona/ californa stretching to Mexico South West USA

Saguaro Cactus- Outside sin is pleated so it can expand when water is soaked up. Roots close to surface so that can soak water before it evaporated

2000 species of plants

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Case Study- Sonoran- Opportunities

Tourism- dry, sunny weather and scenery

Commercial farming- using irrigation from underground aquifiers

Mining- copper, uranium, lead, zinc and coal


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