L'Aquilla 2009- Nature (MEDC)
- 6.8 on Richter Scale.
- Focus 6 miles deep.
- 60 miles from Rome.
- African plate subducting under Eurasian plate.
- Aftershock continued for 2-3 days prior.
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L'Aquilla 2009- Impacts (MEDC)
- £16bn total cost.
- 300 people dead.
- 65,000 made homeless due to poor medieval build quality.
- 88,000 unemployed.
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L'Aquilla 2009- Management (MEDC)
- Italian government gave €30,000 in hardship grants to families totaling €2.4bn.
- At first they refused international aid.
- Took emergency services a long time to get there as it's so remote.
- Recieved aid from EU as well as from national companies.
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Haiti 2010- Nature (LEDC)
- Shock lasted less than one minute
- Formed on a strike-slip plate boundary.
- Epicentre is 15miles from capital.
- Magnitude 7 on Richter scale.
- Homes built on soft river sediment meant amplification occured.
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Haiti 2010- Impacts (LEDC)
- Est. 200,000 dead.
- Capital City Port au Prince left as rubbel
- Search & rescue limited to 24-48hrs
- 1.5million homeless.
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Haiti 2010- Management (LEDC)
- Buildings were quickly rebuild using concrete and steel to allow quick and cheap protection form hurricanes which arrive annually unlike earthquakes.
- Building investigations carried out to understand unsaved structures.
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Earthquake Storm- Turkey
- North Antolian Fault, Turkey
- One earthquake triggers a series of other earthquakes.
- This is due to stress transfers along the same or a nearby fault.
- This can happen over an extended period of time.
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- On the San-Andreas fault zone.
- A magnitude 6 earthquake every 20-30years with a grater frequency of smaller events.
- Localised variations due to rock type, fluidity, etc...
- SAFOD: (San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth) Located at Parkfield, the most monitored place on Earth, going 3km deep- it brings rocks to the surface to analyse them and see if stresses are in the rocks.
- Instruments it has are: A crrepmeter, 8 water wells, Electronic Distance mesures, geodlite and much more.
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Los Angeles- Blind Thrust Faults
- Underground Faults that dont break the surface.
- Inclined downwards at a steep angle.
- This occured in the 1994 Northridge earthquake- A 6.4 magnitude earthquake, epicentre 32km from downtown L.A. in San Francisco Valley. Caused 51deaths and 9,000 serious injuries.
- In L.A. the fault sharply bends West so crust is compressed to the North of ridge. There are a number of these E/W faults- one of these caused to Northridge earthquake.
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Six Phases of Earthquake Activity
5. Seismic wave
6. Surface Rupture
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