Tectonics Revision List

The full revision list for the Tectonics section of the Geog 3, Contemporary Geographical Issues Exam.

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  • Created on: 05-09-13 11:35
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Plate Tectonics and Associated Hazards
Plate movement
The structure of the Earth
o Learn the 4 distinct layers and know the properties of each
o Learn the differences between the types of ocean crust
The theory of plate tectonics
o Understand continental drift
Alfred Wegener theory ­ Pangaea to present day
Evidence from different sciences
Can you evaluate the evidence?
o Development of tectonic theory
Ocean ridges and trenches
Sea floor spreading
Paleomagnetism
The use of seismographs and global mapping
o Convection currents and tectonic plate movement and the map
Different types of plate boundary / margin
o Constructive (divergent )boundaries ­ Oceanic- Mid-ocean ridges.
Describe them
Describe their distribution
Explain the processes
Name the associated landforms
Explain the associated hazards ( seismicity /volcanicity)
Case study: Mid Atlantic ridge
o Constructive (divergent )boundaries ­ Continental- Rift valleys.
Describe and draw
Describe their distribution
Explain the processes
Name the associated landforms
Explain the associated hazards ( seismicity /volcanicity)
Case study: Great African rift valley
o Destructive ( convergent) boundaries ­ Continental vs Oceanic.
Describe
Describe their distribution
Explain the processes: SUBDUCTION
Name the associated landforms
Explain the associated hazards ( seismicity /volcanicity)
Case study: Pacific coast of S.America
o Destructive (convergent) boundaries ­ Oceanic vs Oceanic.
Describe and draw
Describe their distribution
Explain the processes: SUBDUCTION
Name the associated landforms
Explain the associated hazards ( seismicity /volcanicity)
Case study: Marianas Trench and Montserrat
o Destructive (convergent) boundaries ­ Continental vs Continental
Describe and draw
Describe their distribution
Explain the processes

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Name the associated landforms
Explain the associated hazards ( seismicity /volcanicity)
Case study: Himalayas
o Conservative (transform) boundaries ­
Describe and draw
Describe their distribution
Explain the processes
Name the associated landforms
Explain the associated hazards ( seismicity /volcanicity)
Case study: San Andreas fault and Enqurillo Garden fault- Haiti
o Hot spots
Processes that cause hotspots and relation to plate movement
Location of hot spots
Process of change
Associated vulcanicity
Case study: Hawaii…read more

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Volcanicity
Definition of volcanicity
What characterises volcanic activity?
What causes volcanic activity?
Types of eruptive material and emissions, what determines this?
Gaseous emissions ­ describe different types and nature of possible hazards
Solids- describe different types and nature of possible hazards.…read more

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What makes these more or less likely to occur?
o Seconadry effects- often as a result of primary effects
Make a list ­ link to primary effects or primary associated hazards?
What makes these more or less likely to occur?
o Long-term effects
Make a list
What makes these more or less likely to occur?
The consequences of volcanic activity will depend on:
Type of plate boundary
Type of lava
Shape of previous volcano
Topographical and climatological conditions
Population density
Level of preparation and development…read more

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Seismicity (earthquakes)
Definition of an Earthquake
o What characterises an earthquake?
o What causes earthquakes?
o What are seismic waves?
o What is the focus ?
o What is the epicentre?
How does the depth of focus differ?
o Shallow focus ­ Define and describe.
o Intermediate Focus ­ Define and describe.
o Deep focus ­ Define and describe.…read more

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What is a seismograph and how does it work?
o The richter scale. Describe how it works and its limitations.
o The mercalli scale. Describe how it works and its limitations.
o Body wave magnitude. Describe how it works and its limitations.
o Surface magnitude. Describe how it works and its limitations.
o Moment magnitude scale. Describe how it works and its limitations.
Types of primary associated physical hazards, describe what happens and how.…read more

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Earthquake engineering
Buildings and infrastructure- Can this happen in Developing countries?
Retrofitting
Modify loss-
o Contingency planning
Rescue and recovery
Aid
Insurance
Two or more case studies of recent (ideally within the last 30 years) Earthquake events should be
undertaken from contrasting areas of the world.
Possible case studies: Haiti. Kobe-Sendai -Tohoku- Japan. L'Aquilla- Italy. Christchurch ­NZ. Sichuan ­China.
North Ridge -LA
For each case study you must know the following:
The nature of the volcanic hazard
o Can you describe its location.…read more

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What is happening now, are you up to date?
What will happen in the future?…read more

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