- A foreign wife- provide an ally
- a congeneial wife
- a male heir- continue tudor dynasty
Catherine of Aragon
- Married Henry in 1509
- Son of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain.
- loyal wife with no scandel.
- no children in early years.
- end hostile atmosphere which had marked relations between nobility and H. VII.
- Support of nobilty- hoped they would lead invasions on France,creation of "army royal"
- Arrest Empson and Dudley (1510)
- Meeting of the Great Council (1509) - commissioned "oyer" and "terminer"
- jousting with nobilty (e.g Marquis of Dorset)
- reinstated Yorkist families- (Greys and Courtenays)
- cancelled bonds and recognaisences.
- Wars provided opportunity for nobles to advance themselves (Sir Charles Somerset was made Earl of Worcester, Charles Brandon created Duke of Suffolk)
Inherited from Henry VII
- William Warham- Archbishop of Canterbury
- Richard Fox- Bishop of Winchester.
- aims clashed with Henry VIII's: didn't want the expense and uncertainty of war.
- secure alliance with Ferdinand to invade France
- Claim crown on France
- emulate Edward III and Hery VIII
1512 campaign in Spain
- reason: Henry claimed to defend Pope Julius II against Louis XII of France. Really wanted crown and alliance with Ferdinand.
- What happened?: English army of 12,000 men (under Marquis of Dorset) sailed to support F.
- Evidence of failure: F. only interested in conquerring Navarre. Englsh rotted in Fuenterrabia.
- Low morale and disease caused the English to withdraw.
Success of 1513 (Battle of Spurs)
1513 campaign to invade Northern France
- Emulate victory of Edward III in capture of Therouanne.
- Landed at Calais with 25,000 men and 23 nobles (30 June)
- 1st Auguest seige of Therouanne began.
Why was it a success?
- French fled
- English captured 6 standards and 1 duke (amonst others)
- Became known as "Bttle of Spurs"
- Tournai captured- Henry came to attention of Maximillian and Grandson Charles- strong European powers.
Successes of 1513 (Battle of Flodden)
- James VI of Scotland took advantage of Henry's absence.
- honouring "Auld Alliance"
Why was it a success?
- Weakened Scotland: James VI dead, 12 earls and 10,000 scots killed.
- Showed Henry as capable militant leader and sent a message to toehr European power.
The Anglo- French Treaty of 1514
- Henry was short of money- competition with Ferdinand for treaty with France.
- Peace and mutual defence.
- Henry to keep Therouanne and Tournai.
- French pensions to be increased and reinstated.
- Marriage organised between Louis XII and Mary (Henry's sister)
- Scotland could be included in the peace.
The Cost of Wars (financial failure)
Henry's early wars were very expensive:
- £922,000 since 1511.
- £650,000 in 1513 alone.
- Henry VII's reserves.
- Parliamentary taxtion- reluctance to pay by 1514.