Domestic policies Hitler

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Policies for Women (Hitler)

Main Aim(s): - to get back to traditional values of the woman (Church, Children,Kitchen)

  • Increase pure German Births
    • successful to a short term period - war arrived
      • 1933-39 - Birth rate rose then slowly declined
  • Prepare Women for their proper role
    • succesful to a short term period
      • Drop in nr of women at University until WW2
  • Develop Healthy Germans - only to create Aryans, not really care of mothers and children
    • successes more than the failures
      • Improved childcare facilities - infant mortality dropped (1933 - 7.7 % - - 1936 - 6.6%)
  • Organise women and incorporate them in the Nazi life - start of war decreases
    • the successes were more than the failures
      • Increased female participation in Nazi bodies
  • Increase suitable marriages - more divorces during the war period
    • short term success
      • 1932 - 516.000 marriages --- 1934 - 740.000 marriages
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Policies For Youth (Hitler)

Main Aims: to indoctrinate with Nazi ideology in order to create loyalty and willingness to sacrifice

  • Hitler Youth - 1936: 6 million.
  • the strenght and loyalty more cared than the intellect

However:

  • Rebel organisation development: Edelweiss Pirates and the Swing

Historians' views:

  • opposition movement on the part of groups and gangs of young people - Peukert
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Economy policies (Hitler)

Main aim: Restore Germany to full emplyment, autarky and re- armament

  • decreasing unemployability by 1936: 2 million
  • Creation of trade unions such as the Beauty of work to help workers to improve their hours of job.
  • Autarky was not successfully obtained
  • Rearmament was going against the terms of the treaties but it created jobs in the armament industry
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Policies for Women (Mussolini)

Main Aim: to improve birth rates and to get back to traditional values

  • Battle of births - increase population from 50% to 60 %.
    • Loans and tax breaks used to encourage child production
    • Quota system introduced in 1933 to reduce number of women working to 10% of Jobs in public sector

However:

  • birth rate actually declined until 1936
  • even in workplace, the industrial workforce was still 33% only a fall of 3% by 1921

Historians' view:

  • fascist anti - feminism was not particularly successful - Gregor
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Policies for youth (Mussolini)

Main Aims: loyal future fascists, soldiers.

  • ONB
  • Politicisation of education (similar to Hitler)

However

  • only 60% of Northen children
  • leaving school meant no more influence

Historian's view:

  • Pupils were not hostile to fascist ideals, just simply accepted them - Clark
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Economy policies (Mussolini)

Main Aims: Autarky, increase power of the lira, boost industrialisation, taxation and to increase cultivable land

  • Autarky - Italy never become self sufficient
    • virtually no coal, little iron and no oil.
      • However, quotas on imports and increased control over currency
  • Power of the Lira - success for a short term period
    • Deflation - Battle of the Lira
      • However: harmed the economy by hitting exports and unemplyment increases
      • Undermined smaller firms
  • Industrialisation - successful for a short term
    • more ships and vehicles
    • growth of large firms
    • newer  advanced industries
      • However industrialisation mainly in the north
      • governement assistance more geared towards preserving existing structure than encouraging efficient reorganisation
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