Paper 1 Case study 2: German and Italian Expansion

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  • German and Italian Expansion
    • ITALY
      • Abyssinian Crisis 1935 - Mussolini wants to expand Italian empire as part of colony. Abyssinia is not occupied and is near the other colonies Italy has in Africa. Unofficially, the Stresa Powers make it clear they wont react and so M knows that LoN won't react. Bombs Abyssinia in large-scale invasion
        • Abyssinia: Had very outdated weaponry and were no match for Mussolini's forces. Hale Selassi, the emperor flees and goes to LoN to seek help.
        • Uk + France: Don't want to ruin Stresa but his attack is so public, that need to do something. Create the Hoare-Laval Plan that gave Mussolini 2/3 and Abyssinia 1/3 but the plan was leaked and the public was so outraged that it didn't go through. Mussolini gets whole country.
          • LoN: Doesn't do anything even though all dont approve, because Uk and France aren't going to take military action. Instead agree on gradually increasing economic sanctions. Dont impose oil embargo or close the Suarez canal which would have stopped M. They allow Halle Selassi to speak, and M leaves (1936) in protest with no consequences = LoN only extension of UK and FR and stops being influential at all.
        • LoN: Doesn't do anything even though all dont approve, because Uk and France aren't going to take military action. Instead agree on gradually increasing economic sanctions. Dont impose oil embargo or close the Suarez canal which would have stopped M. They allow Halle Selassi to speak, and M leaves (1936) in protest with no consequences = LoN only extension of UK and FR and stops being influential at all.
        • Italy: Gets away with it, because now alienated from Stresa, becomes closer and develops deals with other Eastern European countries = more independence doenst need to worry about offending Greater Powers. In protest over sanctions, doesnt join Anglo-German Naval Pact and forms Rome-Berlin Axis with Hitler 1936 which is the end of the Stresa Front.
      • Albania: Decides to expand further for resources. M tries to make it economically dependent on Italy by giving loans and then when can't be repaid, demanding that infrastructure/ ports given instead - King resists and M withdraws the loans, eventually King desperate so goes into negotiations again, M refuses his conditions and M jut invades + annexes 1939
    • GERMANY
      • Failed Attempt at Austria 1934 - Hitler wants to reunite Austria with Germany and reverse TOV terms - He attempts in 1934 but Mussolini puts troops at the border as a warning, and Hitler backs down
        • Non-Agression Pact with Poland to show the allies that he is not being aggressive
      • Hiters foreign policy is to reverse the terms of the treaty of Versailles. Starts by trying to unify the Saar coal region with Germany. Had been separated in ToV, but Hitler claims that rightfully should be with germany, and holds plebiscite, in which 99% consensus agrees, and takes it back over. 1935
        • Announces rearmament because got away with it so only claiming reasonable things at first.
          • Policy of appeasement
        • LoN dont realy react because seems reasonable and is within germany's bounds
          • Policy of appeasement
      • Remilitarises the Rhineland 1936. Again, no one says anything because of appeasement + seems reasonable
        • 1936 Rome-Berlin Axis formed because Italy has left the LoN
          • In 1938 can unify Austria because now M is on board  - Threatens the Austrian PM and he has to resign = hand over to Nazis and Austria is unified.
          • Also forms Anti-comnitern with Japan and Italy joins later = forming of a rival axis to Uk and France
      • Sudeten Crisis 1938 - Hitler then tries to lay claim to Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia, because he says it has v high population of Germans. Puts army at the border. Czechoslovakia actually has good army but does not want to fight. Appeals to LoN, and they do Munich Agreement w Hitler
        • Munich Agreement 1938 = Sudetenland given to Hitler and Czechoslovakia had to agree or would fight on its own against H.
      • 1939, Hitler makes Nazi-Soviet Pact w USSR, who were threat to Poland, therefore ending the Non-Agression Pact with Poland. Also makes Pact of Steel with Mussolini, which means that the countries have to support each other in case of war. = Preparations to invade Poland
        • Hitler wants to take over the polish corridor that was taken. UK and France public outraged because it was assumed that after the Munich Agreement, Hitler's expansionist ambitions would end. Allies warn Hitler of this but he invades anyway = Allies declare war

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