HideShow resource information

Different types of deviance

Deviance: behaviour that falls outside the norms or outside what is deemed to be acceptable

Positive deviance: behaviour that is outside the norm but with no intention to harm or break the rules - 'over conformity'

  • Deviance but their actions are for positive reasons - striving to win/improve within rules
  • over training leading to injury/competing with an injury
  • over commitment to win
  • unintentionally injures another player

Negative deviance: Behaviour that goes against societies norms and values - detrimental effect

  • behaves in a way that knowingly/intentionally breaks the rules and ethics of sport
  • intentionally breaking the rules
  • fouling another player/violence/hooliganism
  • doping
  • match fixing
1 of 11

Causes of violence (player/performer)

Aggressive behaviour may be caused by:

  • genetic inheritance
  • frustration - reaction to crowd
  • loss of self-identity - follow reactions of crowd
  • social learning - imitate actions of role models

Deviant acts may be caused by:

  • Greater pressure from media/national expectation/media encourages copying of poor role models
  • Increase in win at all cost attitude
  • Caused an increase in gamesmanship – bending the rules
  • Increase in -> doping/violent play/cheating/abusive language/match fixing/deviancy/prosecutions
2 of 11

Strategies for preventing violence (player/perform

  • Campaigns to promote sportsmanship/Respect/Fairplay Awards/Sporting ethics promoted within schools/clubs/education
  • Better officials/citing after game/better technology to help officials/fourth official
  • Rules changed to promote fairplay
  • (On the field) – penalties/sin bins/bookings
  • (Off the field) – fines/bans
  • Punish the club – deduct points/matches behind closed doors
  • Positive role models/name and shame bad role models
  • Codes of conduct for players/spectators
  • Drug testing
  • Prosecute violent play
3 of 11

Causes of violence (spectator)

  • Display of masculinity
  • Gang culture/sense of belonging/identity/peer pressure/tribalism
  • Crowd mentality/loss of individual identity/diminished responsibility
  • Nature of the sport i.e. football>tennis
  • Alcohol/drugs
  • Local rivalry/derby game/importance of the event
  • Racism/nationalism/political groups/religion
  • Adrenalin rush/excitement of violence/outlet for aggression
  • Events during the match/reaction to players/referee decisions/current score/outcome of the event/final result
  • Reaction of working class to middle class ‘taking-over’ the game
  • Media hype
  • Nature of the stadium/poor crowd control/poor security 
4 of 11

Strategies to reduce hooliganism

  • Games played at specified time/kick-off times imposed by police
  • Pubs banned from opening prior to game
  • All seater stadiums/health & safety requirements
  • Violent/racist individuals prosecuted
  • Specific laws, eg trespassing on the pitch/field of play
  • Individuals banned from grounds
  • Individuals banned from travel abroad/passports confiscated
  • Increased police/security at events/use of CCTV
  • Players fined/prosecuted for inciting crowd violence/gestures to crowd/racist comments
  • Police share information about known individuals
  • Segregation of travelling fans 
5 of 11

Implications of violence in sport

  • damages the ability to encourage children to come and watch
  • children copy the behaviour at a lower level
  • poor treatment of legitimate fans - herded, held in ground, treated with suspicion
  • individual players may have career curtailed due to deliberate foul play
  • individual players may have chance of international recognition damaged if team isn't allowed to play in an international comp
  • huge cost in policing and stewarding matches
  • reputation of the country can be damaged
  • poor behaviour of fans can have an effect on national morale
6 of 11

Reasons for using PEDs

Physiological reasons

  • improve performance - able to compete at top level
  • recovery from injury
  • increased training capabilities - train harder for longer

Psychological reasons

  • low self-confidence
  • may be unaware they are taking them
  • lack of moral and ethical boundaries
  • lack psychological attributes to be at top without them
  • 'everyone else is doing it' - pressure from coaches/teammates

Social reasons

  • money/fame from being the best - high rewards
  • unaware of long term health risks - poor guidance/educational programme
  • ignorance/lack of knowledge
7 of 11

Strategies for eliminating drug taking

  • continue development of testing/more rigorous testing 
  • increase in out of competition no warning tests
  • educate young performers - effects and consequences
  • ensure performers are aware of what is allowed and not
  • education on testing regime and athlete are responsible for their bodies
  • more use of the law - increased bans/fines/prison
  • remove medals/titles from drug cheats
  • positive role models
8 of 11

Arguments for and against drug testing


  • Uphold the traditions of sportcheats are caught/all competitors are equal/no unfair adv.
  • Standard list of banned substances/same testing procedures/similar punishments
  • Random tests are more effective/testing not limited by where the athlete is based
  • Shared costs between all sports
  • Performers not able to ‘pick and choose’ sports based on drug testing procedures/no basis for legal complaints of being unfairly treated


  • Difficult to get all countries/sports to agree
  • Expensive/limited number of testing facilities/not available in all countries
  • Testing can produce incorrect results/inconsistent results/difficult to keep up with new drugs
  • Difficult to agree which PED should be included in banned lists
  • Professionals have the right to decide on their own development needs
  • Money used for testing could be used for education about dangers of drug taking
9 of 11

Arguments for and against drug taking


  • PEDs have damaging side effects
  • if legalised then it is assumed you can't succeed without them - puts pressure on athletes
  • cost element in developing/using PEDs - not a level playing field/not available for all
  • unethical/cheating


  • battle against drugs and testing regime are expensive/time consuming - money could be used to improve support for all performers
  • detection of drugs is not always effective - varies country to country
  • drug testers are always behind the chemists - athletes could use drugs undetected for a while
  • nutritional supplements aren't banned and they have beneficial effect on performance
  • PEDs lead to improved performance - new records/exciting spectacle
10 of 11

Uses of sports legislation


  • employment rights and protection - contractual issues
  • drug testing - performers have right to appeal against NGB/BOA sanctions
  • match-fixing - prevention of betting on matches they are involved in
  • equal opportunities legislation - disability/race discrimination


  • referees have a duty of care - may be liable for a players injury
  • allegations of bribery


  • must act within the law and with due regard for their own safety at that of others
  • e.g. no pitch invaions/racist chants
  • clubs have responsibility to fans to ensure helath and safety - all seater stadiums/controlled alcohol sales
11 of 11


No comments have yet been made

Similar Physical Education resources:

See all Physical Education resources »See all Socio-cultural studies resources »