• Created by: Tooth04
  • Created on: 25-01-22 09:24


-Ameteurism - a ninteenth century code or ideal of sporting ethics developed among the upper class and then the middle class in the victorian era. 

-In the 19th century, elite sport was dominated by the upper class who held a higher status than professionals. 

-The code of amateurism encouraged socially acceptable behaviour with a high set of morals and was based on playing to a clear set of rules. 

-These rules were put in place by the upper and middle classes through the creation of NGBs e.g. the FA in 1863 - clear structure set like playing with equal players on each team. 

-Being wealthy and socially elite had plenty of free time to play and could afford to play for the love of the game, without monetary gain. Anyone who developed competency were amateurs and seen as 'elite performers'. 

-Fair play awards in football, and the Olympic ideal based on amateurism principles. Rugby Union players calling the referee 'sir'. 

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The Olympic Oath

-Written by Baron De Courbertin, the founder of the modern Olympics. 

-It is a promise made by one athlete as a representative fo all competitiors, one judge as a representative of the Olympic officials and one coach representing all coaches. 

-Still relevant in modern-day sport because the Olympics are viewed by large numbers of people as a festival of sport, with sportsmanship in evidence. 

-However, there are lots of doping and positive drug tests at the Olympic games, which argues in the relevance of the Olympic oath e.g. Ben Johnson 1988 Seoul Olympics. 

-Professional athletes now play at a 'win at all costs' mentality and stretch the rules to their absolute which further questions adherence and validity of the oath. 

-Philip Hindes at the 2012 olympics purposely fell off of his bike to create a 'false start' due to him believing he had a bad start which meant the race had to be restarted. Although within the rules it was not in the best spirit of the games or the oath. 

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-Sportsmanship- playing by written rules, maintaining a high code of ethics, fairness and etiquette to ensure fair play is evident. 

-E.g. kicking the ball out for an injured player to have treatment or showing 'good grace' by scoring and not celebrating against a former team. 

-In modern day sport, sportsmanship is under attack as winning becomes important. Football players Ashley Young and Wilfrid Zaha earnt a negative reputation for simulation/diving (2014-2015 season). Moving away from 19th century ideals.

  • Sportsmanship can be encouraged by:
  • Use of NGB campaigns promoting sportsmanship and fair play (e.g. FA respect). 
  • Punishing foul play and unsporting behaviour e.g. red and yellow cards or fines or bans after the event.
  • Use of positive role models to promote sportsmanship and fair play. 
  • Use of rigourous drug testing. 
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-Gamesmanship- bending the rules and stretching them to their absolute limits without getting caught. 

Examples of gamesmanship include; 

  • Delaying play at a restart to get back in defence (e.g keeping the ball instead of giving it to the opposition).
  • Time wasting when ahead in a game to esnure victory. 
  • Psyching an opponent out at a pre-match event. 
  • Deliberate deception of an official to try gain an advantage e.g. over appealing for a wicket in cricket. 

-An australian cricket captain instructing his bowler to bowl a legal under arm throw to ensure the opposition batsman cant score a 6, ensuring victory. 

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Win ethic / Lombardian ethic

-the 'win at all costs' metality where coming second is not viewed as an option and outcome is all that matters. 

-The win ethic has been called the 'Lombardian ethic' after the Green Bay Packers American football coach, Vince Lombardi -'winning was not a sometime thing, it was an all-time thing'. 

-In modern day Rugby, where the code of amateurism was protected until the late twentieth century, top level coaches have even resorted to using fake blood capsules to mimic an injury so that a specialsit kicker can enter the field of a crucial game stage, when kicking a penalty is required to win. 

  • The win ethic is evident; 
  • No drawn games e.g. League cup football. 
  • Managers and coaches are fired at unsuccessful. 
  • High amounts of deviance e.g. violence. 
  • Media praise for winners.
  • Media negativity for losers. 
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Deviance is behaviour which goes against the norms of society and is deemed unacceptable

Positive deviance - involves over-adherence to the norms and expectations of society. For example, a performer might over-train or try to compete in a sporting event, despite being injured. 

Retired marathon runner Paula Radcliffe, in the 2004 Athens Olympics, is an example of an elite performer doing her best despite carrying an injury. 

Negative deviance -  involves under-adherence to the norms of society. The motivation to win at all costs encourages performers who lack moral restraint. 

  • Examples of negative deviance;
  • Taking illegal PED 
  • Deliberately fouling or harming an opponent via aggression. 
  • Match fixing. 
  • Diving to win a penalty or free kick. 
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