Deprivation and Privation

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Koluchova (Czech twins) - Privation

  • Cared for in institution for 1 year before being fostered by aunt for further 6 months
  • 18 months = went to live with father, but he was often away 
  • Over 5 years, stepmother locked them away in a cold,dark closet and regularly beat them
  • Rescued at age 7 = severely retarded, no speech and terried of adults and the dark, bone disease (rickets) caused by lack of vitamin D, small for their age
  • Developmental stage of 3 year old
  • 2 years of intensive institutional care including physiotherapy, speech therapy and psychotherapy
  • Fostered into caring family
  • Age 11 = speech normal
  • Age 14 = no social-emotional or intellectual deficits
  • Age 20 = above average intelligence, working, experiencing successful romantic relationships
  • National Service in their 20s
  • Married and had children
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Hodges and Tizzard - Privation

  • Longitudinal study
  • Effects of privation on social and intellectual development of adolescents who were unable to form attachments early on in life having spent early years in institution
  • 65 children taken into care before age of 4 months compared with control grop of children raised normally at home
  • Age 4 = some of institutionalised children had been adopted, some returned to their families and others remained in institution
  • Assessed on emotional and social competence
  • Age 16 = most of adopted children had formed close relationships with caregivers and were as attached as the control group --> did far better than restored and institutionalised children
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Wallerstein - Divorce (Deprivation)

  • Even after 10 years, children from divorced parents regarded the event as most stressful in their lives
  • Hetherington found girls cope better with divorce than boys, most likely because boys tend to be more attached to their fathers and it is usually loss of contact with father that occurs following divorce
  • In long-term, Wallerstein found that girls suffered more, many fearing rejection and betrayal by men
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Robertson - Deprivation

  • Studied children separated from PCG
  • 3 stages of distress: PROTEST eg. crying, DESPAIR eg. shows reduced outward signs of distress but becomes disinterested and doesn't respond to attempts at comforting and DETACHMENT eg. child engages with their surroundings in superficial way and may reject their mother when reunited
  • Robersons believed that providing child wit substitute caregiver, during parents' absence may help to reduce effects of short-term separation, as child may be able to form an attachment
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