Effects of deprivation & privation.

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  • Deprivation & privation.
    • Consequences of deprivation.
      • Short term effects are quite apparent, they usually follow three distinct stages. The first is protest, immediate acute distress and crying on separation. Then secondly, comes despair ,misery and apathy. Then finally, detachment and apparent recovery, but this sometimes results in rejection of parents.
      • The long term effects of deprivation are more serious. Bowlby (1953) said that there are negative effec6s on social and cognitive development if children are deprived of contact. This was said to develop into later impairments on the ability to form relationships.
    • Bowlby did large amounts of work on deprivation. He researched long term effects of deprivation with his study of the 44 young delinquents (1946) and also looked into the short  term effects of deprivation with his study of 49 young children (1952)
    • Deprivation is when the child form attachments of care with the mother and then has them taken away through separation.
    • Privation is when the child never has any attachment to humans through extreme neglect.
    • There are very few short term effects to privation because generally privation is a long term thing done over not just months but years, however, if we catch the children before they have reached the hypothesised 'critical period' then most of the effects can be reversed. This was shown with the Koluchova twins (1976). The identical twins who had been in privation for 5 and a half years had a full reversal in all their impairments and are now holding down reliable jobs and are happily married with children.
      • However, Curtiss (1977) found that if left too late then the effects of privation could not be reversed, Genie was found at the age of 13 with both severe mental and physical impairments. Despite best efforts, her social and cognitive development made little progress, however, it cannot be concluded so easily as it is possible that Genie had learning difficulties before being put into privation, but we cannot tell for certain.
    • It is important to point out that the effects of institutions is variable and in some cases do not appear to have an appreciable effect on the child's development.
      • Hodges and Tizard (1989) looked at the later effects of adopted children who had been in residential care, however it was found that most reports that came back to them were positive ones, the children were completely normal and progressed as any other child who had not been in care would do. The only slight maladjustment was the fact that some of the children did not form normal relationships with friends as they seemed to be overally aggressive sometimes.
      • However, when Romanian orphanages were assessed it was found that they children were in extremely poor conditions. Children who went in normal were found to have extreme brain damage and disabilities when, or rather if, they came out of the orphanage. The children were forced into cots where they just lay for 24 hours a day without any interaction or any audible sound.
  • Short term effects are quite apparent, they usually follow three distinct stages. The first is protest, immediate acute distress and crying on separation. Then secondly, comes despair ,misery and apathy. Then finally, detachment and apparent recovery, but this sometimes results in rejection of parents.

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