Defining the key terms

Key terms for History

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Extreme left and right

  • left and right are vague terms
  • The extremes of each side hate each other
  • Defferent support basis
  • Growth of one affects the other

Origins of the terms

  • French revolution
  • King toppled - change in society
  • GIRONDIN - sat on the right hand side of parliament.
  • Want to keep the king
  • Preserve the wealth of the people
  • Neogaitate with European wars.
  • Jacobins- sit on left hand side of parliament.
  • Want to kill the king
  • Confiscate the people's wealth
  • Destroy France's enemies

Left= radical change ... Right= oppose it!!!

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Distinguishing groups

Left

  • Socialists
  • Communists
  • Marxists
  • Anarchists
  • - Defined for the working class
  • - Called "the people"
  • - comes to power through revolution
  • - War was a bad thing, as it was irrelevant to workers
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Distinguishing the groups

Right

  • Fascists
  • Nationalists
  • Nazi's
  • Futurist'
  • "National pride" at the centre of their focus...
  • Speak by saying "the nation" where as the lefts say "the people"
  • Supported by the rich, as rich scared of communism.
  • Think that wars a great thing as it shows superiority
  • They had one charasmatic leader.
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Significance of the terms

  • Massively important after world war 1.
  • Russian revolution 1917
  • - (Working class in Russia is very small)
  • If a revolution can happen there then it can happen any where.
  • Thus proves that revolution can happen
  • Inspires many on the left
  • Potentially massive support base for the right
  • Dissillusioned soldiers
  • People scared by communism
  • These people (right wing) will then use the soldiers
  • Italy ripe for both
  • Humiliation of post war treaties
  • Economic unrest
  • Weak existing govt
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Introduction

19th century

  • - number of ideoligies spread through Europe
  • - Result of rapid industrialisation
  • - Understanding necessary at AS.
  • Mid 19th century = 2 broad groups

Conservatism

  • Conserve existing political system
  • The interest of the small elite against interests of majourity
  • Generally authoritarian
  • E.g : Russia, Austria Hungry ---> made up of so many other nations that any change could cause collapse, and so change is restricted.
  • Few involved in goverment election.
  • Oposition generally crushed.
  • Reactionary - opposed to radical social or political change.
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continued

Liberalism (left)

  • Laissez Fairre system
  • Individual freedom
  • Gradual reform
  • Laissez faire led to exploitation

---------------------------------------------------------------

Key dates

* 1832 --> middle class vote

* 1867 --> working class vote

* 1884 --> agricultural classes vote

* 1928 --> women get the right to vote

* 1960 --> 18 year olds get the right to vote

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continued

(Democracy and Liberalism are linked)Democracy

  • Liberal societies, generally democratic
  • Responsible people have a say

Republicanism (left) except France

  • All majour European countries
  • Hereditary head of state, but...
  • Some believed that an elected head of state was fairer (eg USA)

Nationalism(right) --> defined by mozzini

  • Belief that all of those shared
  • Language/ customs/ hisotry/ geography/ "hope" should join
  • Irredentists - people who wish to unify all areas of the country
  • An ideology linked with several others... e.g... conservatism
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Continued

Social Darwinism

  • Darwins law applied to European nations
  • Industry, army, education, meant superiority
  • Mussolini an advocate

Imperialism (right) (scramble for Africa)

  • Aggressive nationalism behind surges in the 19th century empire building
  • Justified under social darwinism

"Proto-fasicm" - (right)

  • An existing body of thought to be later adapted into fascism
  • E.g. futurists.

Communism

  • State controlled by the workers
  • Class politically and economically
  • Brought by revolution
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Continued

Marxism (left)

  • The ideolgy behind communism
  • "Dialectic" history saw
  • Communists society inevitable
  • Mussolini was advocate of revolution
  • Marx saw communism as inevitable and looked to history to prove it
  • Civilisation will pass through several phases and these phases were inevitable.
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Continued...

  • - 1st stage
  • Deportism = rule of one (Egypt)
  • - Overthrown by nobility
  • -2nd stage
  • Arosticracy
  • Rule of land owners (Feudalism)
  • Over thrown by middle class (BURGEOISIE)
  • - 3rd stage
  • Burgeoisie state
  • Rule of the middle class
  • overthrown by the working class (proletariat)
  • - 4th stage
  • Dictatorship of the prolertariat
  • -5th stage
  • Communism
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Socialism

Socialism

  • Umberella term for the left
  • working class always the focus
  • Strands; moderate to extreme
  • moderates wanted reform = power from democracy
  • extreme wanted revolution = power through revolution
  • Syndicalists; trade unions
  • Fascism roots in "isms"?

Conclusion

  • Fascism - borrowed by a number of these ideoligies?
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