Extreme left and right
- left and right are vague terms
- The extremes of each side hate each other
- Defferent support basis
- Growth of one affects the other
Origins of the terms
- French revolution
- King toppled - change in society
- GIRONDIN - sat on the right hand side of parliament.
- Want to keep the king
- Preserve the wealth of the people
- Neogaitate with European wars.
- Jacobins- sit on left hand side of parliament.
- Want to kill the king
- Confiscate the people's wealth
- Destroy France's enemies
Left= radical change ... Right= oppose it!!!
- - Defined for the working class
- - Called "the people"
- - comes to power through revolution
- - War was a bad thing, as it was irrelevant to workers
Distinguishing the groups
- "National pride" at the centre of their focus...
- Speak by saying "the nation" where as the lefts say "the people"
- Supported by the rich, as rich scared of communism.
- Think that wars a great thing as it shows superiority
- They had one charasmatic leader.
Significance of the terms
- Massively important after world war 1.
- Russian revolution 1917
- - (Working class in Russia is very small)
- If a revolution can happen there then it can happen any where.
- Thus proves that revolution can happen
- Inspires many on the left
- Potentially massive support base for the right
- Dissillusioned soldiers
- People scared by communism
- These people (right wing) will then use the soldiers
- Italy ripe for both
- Humiliation of post war treaties
- Economic unrest
- Weak existing govt
- - number of ideoligies spread through Europe
- - Result of rapid industrialisation
- - Understanding necessary at AS.
- Mid 19th century = 2 broad groups
- Conserve existing political system
- The interest of the small elite against interests of majourity
- Generally authoritarian
- E.g : Russia, Austria Hungry ---> made up of so many other nations that any change could cause collapse, and so change is restricted.
- Few involved in goverment election.
- Oposition generally crushed.
- Reactionary - opposed to radical social or political change.
- Laissez Fairre system
- Individual freedom
- Gradual reform
- Laissez faire led to exploitation
* 1832 --> middle class vote
* 1867 --> working class vote
* 1884 --> agricultural classes vote
* 1928 --> women get the right to vote
* 1960 --> 18 year olds get the right to vote
(Democracy and Liberalism are linked)Democracy
- Liberal societies, generally democratic
- Responsible people have a say
Republicanism (left) except France
- All majour European countries
- Hereditary head of state, but...
- Some believed that an elected head of state was fairer (eg USA)
Nationalism(right) --> defined by mozzini
- Belief that all of those shared
- Language/ customs/ hisotry/ geography/ "hope" should join
- Irredentists - people who wish to unify all areas of the country
- An ideology linked with several others... e.g... conservatism
- Darwins law applied to European nations
- Industry, army, education, meant superiority
- Mussolini an advocate
Imperialism (right) (scramble for Africa)
- Aggressive nationalism behind surges in the 19th century empire building
- Justified under social darwinism
"Proto-fasicm" - (right)
- An existing body of thought to be later adapted into fascism
- E.g. futurists.
- State controlled by the workers
- Class politically and economically
- Brought by revolution
- The ideolgy behind communism
- "Dialectic" history saw
- Communists society inevitable
- Mussolini was advocate of revolution
- Marx saw communism as inevitable and looked to history to prove it
- Civilisation will pass through several phases and these phases were inevitable.
- - 1st stage
- Deportism = rule of one (Egypt)
- - Overthrown by nobility
- -2nd stage
- Rule of land owners (Feudalism)
- Over thrown by middle class (BURGEOISIE)
- - 3rd stage
- Burgeoisie state
- Rule of the middle class
- overthrown by the working class (proletariat)
- - 4th stage
- Dictatorship of the prolertariat
- -5th stage
- Umberella term for the left
- working class always the focus
- Strands; moderate to extreme
- moderates wanted reform = power from democracy
- extreme wanted revolution = power through revolution
- Syndicalists; trade unions
- Fascism roots in "isms"?
- Fascism - borrowed by a number of these ideoligies?