CVD - AS 2 - N&FS

  • Created by: sarahj123
  • Created on: 18-04-19 22:15

Meaning

Alll disease of heart & circulation :

  • CHD
  • ANGINA
  • HEART ATTACK
  • STROKE

Caused by : Atherosclerosis

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Development

ATHEROSCLEROSIS = narrow arteries caused by atheroma build up ( fat material ) = LDL cholesterol accumulate & oxidise ( thicken walls & plaque forms ) = reduce blood flow 

1. Arteries = narrow - blood cant flow to heart = ANGINA

THROMBOSIS =Atherosclerotic plaque breaks off - causes clot = MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION / STROKE

2. Atheroma break of = blood clot = Heart attack / Stroke

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Development - Additional info

1 Artery injury

  • HBP = Vessel wall tears ( self repair - platelets = clot )
  • Collagen = strengthen and thicken wall

2 Fibrous Plaque

  • Lipids - pass through cell wall = incorporate into cell ( if oxidise cant pass )
  • WBC (MICROPHAGES) destroy damaged lipids = cannot leave ( accumulate + surround with fat )
  • When die = stay = attract platelets & fibrin = clot (thicken plaque )

3 Thrombosis

  • Plaque rupture = fat released into circulation = attract clot mechanism - clot form = blovk blood flow
  • Cause MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION & CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT 
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Non - Modifiable Risk

  • Gender - Men ^ risk + Women after menopause
  • Ethnicity - Indian & Pakistan ^ risk 
  • Low birth weight - Premature birth- laughter age 1 - fail to develop properly (heart undeveloped)
  • Genetics - History of CVD in family = ^ risk + ^ BP & cholesterol in genetics = ^ CHD (men in fam under 55 + women in fam under 65)
  • Age - Men >45 & Women >55 at risk ( women during resproductive  = oestrogen protects from plaque )
  • Socio - economics - lower income + lack knowledge + less facilities
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Modifiable risks

  • Smoking = Damage artery ( atheroma = narrow ) + CO (low o2) + Nicotine (adrenaline = ^ BP) + Inc risk of clotts
  • Low activity = weak heart + fast resting heart rate + exercise (lower BP & LDL & inc HDL)
  • Low fruit & veg = HSFS (Hypertension + ^ cholesterol) + F&V (antioxidant + NSP)
  • Alcohol = Hyperlipidaemia ( too much fat ) + ^ triglycerides + ^BP + -ve for kiney
  • Low antioxidants = prevent disease ( fight free rad ) + oxidised cholesterol damage cell ( plaque formed = block blood flow ) = lower cholesterol
  • High sodium = ^ BP  + hypertension ( strain artery = thicker = narrow )
  • Low soluble fiber = ^ LDL (clog artery = lower blood flow) + filling + get rid of LDL & Total 
  • Cholesterol = lipoproteins stransport (LDL = BAD / HDL = GOOD) - From cell + Create vit D & steroids + produce bile acid
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DISEASE = ^ CVD

1. Obesity = ^ tri + ^BP + ^LDL (Body cant use insulin well )

2. Hypertension = strain heart ( weak + damaged= heart work hard ) + kidney disease

3. Diabetes =poor glucose control + fat clogs vessels + strain heart ( ^ LDL & low HDL )

4. Fatty acid = Sat fat ( ^ LDL & Total = form plaque + stop LDL removal ) + Unsat fat (lower LDL & Total )

5. Homocysteine = Amino Acid ( from meat )

  • Irritate vessel lining = harden + narrow = inc blood clott
  • change coagulation factor level = caue clots
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Cholesterol

Waxy fat like substance ( in animal tissue)

  • cell membrane
  • sex hormones
  • bile acid

Made in liver 

  • In foods eg. butter &  eggs
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Lifestyle = lower CVD

  • Activity =150 min = lower BP & clots +control weight (lower cardiac arythmia)
  • Stop smoking = ^ cholesterol & fibrinogen ( clot )
  • Stop alcohol = ^ BP & heart rate ( resveratrol )
  • Stop stress = lower BP = stop clots ( adrenaline & cortisol = stress hormones )
  • Healthy weight = lower BP & cholesterol & glucose = regulate heart beat
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Dietary = lower CVD

  • Lower salt = lower BP + lower risk of hypercalciuria & left ventricular hypertrophy
  • Unsat fat = lower LDL & total + inc HDL
  • Lower sugar = lower BP & diabetes 
  • Inc soluble fiber = weight control + lower cholesterol + lower BP
  • Inc fruit & veg = Antioxidants + fibre + lower BP ( Homocysteine )
  • Lower kcal = ^ BP +cholesterol & lower HDL
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