Alcohol -AS 2 - N&FS

  • Created by: sarahj123
  • Created on: 19-04-19 00:40

Introduction

1g = 7kcal

Increases illness = cancer ( 4% of all cancers caused by alcohol

Heavy drinking = LIVER CIRRHOSIS ( liver damage )

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Drink & Smoke

Damage cells 

Drink & smoke = 3x more likely to have oral cancer

Only protect women over 55 - damage body = NO MORE THAN 14 UNITS PER WEEK (spread)

Female liver = ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE (enzyme) = break down alcohol = stay in body = alcohol more concentrated

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Drink & Cancer

  • Acetaldehyde = alcohol --> toxic = damage DNA + stop cell repair ( liver cells grow fast + pick up harmful changes )
  • Oestrogen & hormones = high = give instructions (body messengers) 
  • Folate & nutrients = lower cancer ( DNA production )

 

1. Bowel = Meat & alcohol ^ - Acetaldehyde damage DNA (dont stop growing / dont repair)

2. Liver = liver cells die = affect ability to repair self = scar ( cirrhosis + non-alcohol liver disease )

3. Breast = Protein (CYP2E1) = oxidative stress & inc prolifer ( lower folate & inc oestrogen )

4. Mouth & Oesophagus & Larynx  = damage DNA + stop repair - mouth tissue absorb carcogenic

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Alcohol & Obesity

  • Ferment starch & sugar
  • Emoty kcal

 

System prioritizes getting rid of alcohol = other process interrupted ( absorption of nutrient )

Obese women = cirrhosis

82% people unaware that alcohol has kcal

Hard to lose weight = alter blood sugar lvl

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Alcohol & CVD

Over 45 = alcohol can protect heart = red wine

^ intake regularly = ^ heart rate  = tachycardia (cause clots )

  • ^BP = weight gain 
  • Weak heart =  enlarged = Cardiomyopathy 
  • Irregular heart beat = pains = arythmia

Alcohol protect:

  • Prevent artery damage = inc HDL + lower atheroma
  • Stop clots = lower platelets sticking & fibrinogen
  • Good for heart = antioxidant = ^ flavanoids 

Anti-clot ability = protect 

Alcohol = inc HEMORRHAGIC STROKE & BRAIN BLEEDING

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Alcohol & Pregnancy

Placenta = doesn't keep harmful toxins away from baby = harmful ( liver cant process )

1. Miscarriage = can happen in 1st trimester

2. Premature birth / Low birth weight 

Short term baby problems

  • Breath + Heart + Brain problems 

Long term baby problems

  • Hearing problem 
  • Vision problems = Retinopathy (blood vessels in eyes swell)
  • Impaired cognitive skills = learning disability + ADHD
  • Cerebral Palsy =muscle & posture disorder
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Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

Umbrella term = spectrum of abnormalities

  • Egocentric
  • Poor attention
  • Poor short term memory
  • Language & learn difficulty

* NO FACIAL DEFORMITIES *

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Foetal Alcohol Syndrome ( FAS )

Physical & Mental birth defects  

Growth problems + Brain damage + Abnormal face

  • Low nose bridge
  • Thin top lip
  • Abnormal ears

Infants with FASD:

  • Irritable
  • dont eat
  • hypertonia/hypotonia ( too much/ little muscle tone )

Adults with FASD:

  • Not independent 
  • Trouble 
  • Hard relationships
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-ve effects of alcohol on pregnancy

Alcohol = replace food = less nutrients absorbed = pass deficiency onto baby

  • Vitamin B1 = beri - beri = large heart + weak muscle + paralysis (thiamin = break down alcohol = needed)

 

  • Folate = Not enough in first 12 week = SPINA BIFIDA

 

  • Protein = maintain cell structure + transport substances + act like enzyme
  • Hepatic encephalopathy= mental function change = toxins in blood= hepatic coma 
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Excess alcohol = Nutritional Consequences

lower appetite

1. Fat metabolism = hard  for liver to remove toxins ( alcohol converted to acetaldehyde ) = fat build up = cirrhosis + liver cancer

2. Glucose =body try to excrete alcohol = cant maintain glucose & hormones ( insulin less effective ) 

3. Water Vitamins = diuretic = excreted = impair absorption + damage cell lining  = stop vitamin absorption

4.Fat Vitamins = low bile production = affect vit D & calcium absorption + can cause vit k deficiency ( needed for clotting )

5. Minerals=

  • Iron = gastrointestal bleeding + anaemia 
  • Zinc = needed for growth +immunity + wound  healing
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