- Culture is used to describe the way of life in the society William (1913). Each culture would have diffrent norms and values and they would be diffrent from other people.
- Culture would be used to narrow ways to refer to artictic and intellectural activities e.g. theatre or arts. this would show that that person is cultured.
- Culture would be also considered as the whole system of behaviour and beliefs of a society or group, which includes faith, art, music, fashion, moral, laws customes or tradition ect.
- Culture would vary hugely accross the world, which would link to culture diversity. Culture would change over times and the norms and values brings along with them. E.g. In 1950s, it was allowed smoking, now it is band in every public place in the U.K.
Mead (1935) Sex and temperament in three primitive societies
She looked at several tirbal cultures in Samoa and New Guinea. she founded that males and females roles were diffrent in diffrent tribes and from the U.S. E.g.
- Arapech tribe - both males and females were gentle and cooperative
- Mundugumor tribe - both mals and females were violent and aggressive
- Chambri tribe - where females and males roles would be swoped over. where males took care of the child and females went hunting.
Norms and Values
- Norms - Are the expected patterns of behaviour that are based on the values of a culture. E.g. In the U.K. it is a norm to war cloths in public ( To show value of modesty) or to eat with a fork and knife ( To show values of manners and hygiene)
- Values - Are the beliefs and ideas that society sees as importnat and that are accepted by the majority of the society. values are things that we believe in like strive to achieve. E.g. life, sucess, honesty, loyalty, Ect.
Some examples of norms and values that link together.
Educational achievement Getting A in A/level
Respect Listening to other people talk
Life Wearing an seatbelt
Norms and values will change over time like culture, which mean that they are not fixed and they are not the same for all people E.g. smoking used to be the norm in pubs and may other social situations, whereas it is becoming more and more deviant to smoke.
- Diversity refers to variety or diffrence
- Cultural diversity refers to the diffrent and variety found in societies.
- It can be seen in Intercultural diversity, whcih means what is within the culture like eating, greeting, clothing, food, language, leisure or behaviours, Ect.
- it can be also seen as intracultural diversity, which mean what is around that culture or what is simmler to that culture ( variety of norms and values)
- U.K. is seen as a Intracultural diversity, this would may include cultures of diffrent ethnic groups, but there is also a diversity of regional culture ( Welsh, Scottish, English, Nothern Irland) it would be also diversity in age, class, sexual and so on. adding to the range of thing that become the 'Normal'
- Subcluture is often describe as a 'Culture with in a Culture' - a smaller grouping of people who share distinctive norm and values within a wider culture.
- U.K. culture there are subcultures based on age ( E.g. Youth subculture such as Punks or Emos), ethnicity, music, fashion, political beliefs and so on.
- An society with many subcultures will be cultureally diverse
- A hybrid is a cross between or merging of two or more things. U.K culture is often described as a Cultural hybrid becuase it contains aspects of English, Scottish, Welsh and Irish culture but influences from Asian, Caribbean or U.S. culture and so on.
- In a global Society, hybridity becomes more common. Culture hybridity can best be seen in aspects such as music, fashion and food.
- Culture hybridity is often considered in the U.K. in relation to second or thrid generation immigrants who adopt hybrid identities.
Hybrid Culture Examples:
- Brasians - British and Asian Mix together
- Blasians - Black and Asian Mix together
- Tika Masala - is often known as an indian but was created in C.London
High Culture refers to activities that are seen to have a very high statues. It would be considered 'cultured' in this sence is based on those cultual products that represent the highest achievements in humanity.
High Culture Activitys:
- Shakespeare's plays
- Classical music
- Arts and Ect.
High culture is and often appreciated by those whith high level of education and social upbrining- those who are 'cultured'
- This is when the user would go out to buy good and would spend money. it would be seen as a norm to have a negitive number on the bank account.
- It is also argureed that consumer culture tend to purches things that they dont need and they would buy consume branded goods in a blatant attempt to construct an identity and gain status in the eye of others.
- this would be reinforced by the media, especially the advertising industry and celebrity culture.
- This is refered to a growing trend of cultural products and activities becoming 'Universal' where brands, food, films and other cultural products are identical across many diffrent countries, national cultures lose their distinctiveness
- This would link to globalisation
- Globalisiation is where McDonalds's, Microsoft, Nike are known around the world
McLuan (1964) Global Village
- He said that the world is becoming a smaller place and we now live in a 'Global Village'. This has been driven by industry, media or the access of the internet.
Globalisation and Culture
- A number of soviologists have noticed the emergence of global culture, a product of the process of globalisation - which implies that culture can no longer be seen as separate from each other.
- The society is more and more lilkey to connect to large companys like Nike or Apple.
- Poeple around the would can be seen drinking or eating large barnded compnayes food or driving it.
- Mc Donald's
- Family Guy and Ect.
What is Socialisation?
What is Socialisation?
Nature is when the child was born with the genes that they have, this would include age, gender, the way the person looks and so on. the users could have twins.
Nurture is when the person is socialised in to way of behaving or in the way they norms and values are. Each culture would have a diffrent nurture upbrining.
Holdon (1980) Twin studies
There were two boys that came from the same parent but were separated by war. oskar was raised in Nazi germany in a chatholic religion and jack was raised in a jews religion in caribbean which his mother while oskar was raised by his mother. when they got togther, it was founded that they both had simmler liking that would show that natrue wins.
This is where the girl genie was keeped in a room away from the society and away from primary socialisation. she didtn know how to walk, talk, eat, or brush there hair. she was found in a house where the father said he was protecting here becuase she was ill. she later in her life lived normal life.
- This is the early years of life (age 0-5) are very importnat in the learining process
- Children would also learn through imitation ( by copying the behaviour of adults)
- Children learn the social roles expected of them by looking at Role Models in the family
- Prents may use various Positive and negative sanction, like praising a child when they behave in an appropriate way.
- familys teach there children in what gender roles they should be by giving toys ( boys get construction toys and girls dolls)
Ann Oakley, The family and gender socialisation
- 1)Manipulation: Parents encourage behaviour that is seen normal for the child’s sex and discourage behaviour associated with the other sex. For example, mothers may encourage girls to pay more attention than boys to their appearance.
- 2) ‘Canalisation’: Children are ‘channelled’ by their parents towards toys and activities seen as appropriate for their sex.
- 3) Verbal appellations: These are the ways we talk to children at an early age and tell them how important gender is – ‘good girl’, ‘naughty boy ‘ and so on.
- 4) Different activities: Boys are encouraged to get involved in different activities. Girls are expected to help their mothers in doors while boys get greater freedom to roam outdoors.
Secondary Socialisation - Peer Groups
- Peer groups consist of people of a similar status who come into regular contact with one another, such as friends, school children in the same year and colleagues in the same job.
Children learn the rules of games and sports via peer groups rather than formal sports lessons.
The role of the peer group is essential to understanding the use of playtime in primary school.
Peer groups can form around issues of rebellion or resistance. For some people resisting the norms and wanting to be individualistic is part of the process of growing up.
Some youth subcultures such as punks and skinheads are based on rebellion and resisting the norms and values of wider society, they share their own norms and values.
Just like in education and the workplace, peer groups have hierarchies. They share their own norms and values.
Belonging to and being acceppted by a peer group
Skelton and Francis (2003)
Research showed how playgrounds are dominated by issues of space, where boys use vast amounts of space for football, excluding the girls and non-sporty boys.In the same ways, girls are keen to exclude boys from activities like skipping or talking.
Secondary Socialisation - Education
- School is one of the first times children in our society are separated from their parents for any length of time.
Starting school means that children have to learn to adapt to a new set of rules, regulations and cultural expectations.
During the eleven years of compulsory schooling pupils are constantly reminded of hierarchy and the importance of social order.
The formal curriculum involves the subjects, which are on the school timetable, such as English, Maths, Science, History etc and is decided on by the government . This is guided by the National Curriculum.
The informal curriculum plays a crucial role in the socialisation of pupils, as it is responsible for transmitting norms and values crucial to survival in a classroom setting. E.g. importance of punctuality, how to queue outside a classroom are all learnt via the hidden curriculum.
Bowles and Gintis (2002)
Argue that there are close parallels between schooling and work in capitalist society. They call this the correspondence principle. Education system is a ‘giant myth making machine’ brainwashing children into obedience and unquestioning attitude. Both have hierarchies, with head teachers or bosses at the top making decisions and giving orders and workers and pupils obeying. Achievements and failures are of their own making, everything is fair and based on merit.
Secondary Socialisation - Media
Use of media has exploded with new forms such as the internet, mobile phones and games alongside traditional media such as TV, films, newspapers and magazines.
Some sociologists think that the media has a direct and powerful effect on its audience, just like a drug This is known as the hypodermic syringe model. It brainwashes people in how to think.
This is where the media provides us with role models, which may help to reinforce socially acceptable way of behaving. E.g. Jamie Oliver
Representation of Social Group
This is when the media through its representation of social groups often based on stereotypes and bias, that can inflence our views (Social groups such as women, the elderly, ethnic minorities and the working class)
Laura Mulvey (1975)
Uses the concept of the 'Male Gaze' to describe how the camera in films etc ‘eyes up’ female character
This is when the media is being copyed by the user and influnces them.
The creation of consumer culture
Through advertising, the media provides us with designs for living; images and ideas which we use to create out identity and encouraged to buy products.Consumer brands are often endorsed by celebrity role models as advertising industry believed they boost sales.
Secondary Socialisation - Religion
It can be argued that our attitudes towards moral issues such as abortion, euthanasia, war etc have been influenced to an extent by religion. Many of our norms and values in the UK, including laws, morals and customs are based on Christian religion.
Religion socialises individuals into a set of moral values. Over time these became part of wider society.
Religions prescribe a moral code, sometimes through written rules which guide our daily behaviour. Religious codes of conduct can affect all areas of a person’s life, from what they eat and what they wear, to what they can do and cant do on sacred days.
Most religions have a figure of authority or worship who acts a role model to followers.
Modood and Berthoud– Ethnic minorities (1997)
Modood and Berthoud coordinated a National Survey of Ethnic Minorities in Britain. The survey included questions on the importance of religion in their lives. It was found that 67% of young British Pakistani and Bangladeshis agreed with the statement ‘religion is very important to how I live my life,’ compared to 5% of the young white sample.
Secondary Socialisation - Workplace
The workplace is a key agent of socialisation for adults, rather than children. Workplaces socialise people through the same processes as the other agencies of socialisation. Individuals learn about how to ‘survive; in the workplace and what they need to do through:
Imitation ,Role Models, Peers, Positive and Negative Sanctions, Hierarchy
Re-socialisation: When we start work we have to learn new ways of behaving, such as submitting toworkplace discipline (e.g. working hours, breaks, obeying the boss) as well as learning the role for which wehave been employed.
Management of a company takes formal responsibility for socialising employees. Provide training courses to develop necessary work skills Norms and rules about appearance, attitudes and behaviour Some workplaces – Strict dress codes. E.g. police and uniform, others may be less rigid but still ways of dressing appropriately e.g building site Behaviour controlled through official codes of conduct
Unwritten rules of the workplace are learned through observing others, and through casual discussion with colleagues. Workplace peer groups might have their own rituals – playing jokes on the newcomers. They may have their own norms which may not be approved by management – e.g. ignore official rules and do things their own way, slow down pace of work (those who work too hard could be bullied or mocked).