CRITICAL APPROACHES

  • Created by: ericab
  • Created on: 13-05-19 18:19

FREUD - PSYCHOANALYSIS

UNHEIMLICH

"SOMETHING HAS TO BE ADDED"

FREUD 

WHAT IS HEIMLICH COMES TO BE UNHEIMLICH. SUBSPECIES.

UNCANNY = VARIES PERSON 2 PERSON 

SANDMAN (HOFFMAN) 

  • EYES, CASTRATION, SANDMAN = FATHER - INFANTILE FEAR (OR JUST RATIONAL)
  • DOLLS - TOY STORY - "INFANTILE WISH" 

DEVIL'S ELIXIR (HOFFMAN) 

  • DOUBLE 
  • = CHILDHOOD NARCISSM  - VISION OF TERROR AS FALLEN GODS

+ QUICK SUCCESSION OF OCCURANCES 

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JENTSCH - PSYCHOANALYSIS

JENTSCH - BLAMES UNCANNY ON "INTELLECTUAL UNCERTAINTY"  - "DOUBTS" AND "LIFELESS OBJECTS"

  • THIS WOULD MAKE OLYMPIA THE DOLL THE SOURCE OF THE UNCANNY IN SANDMAN
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SANDERS, GRIMM & SCHELLING- PSYCHOANALYSIS

DANIEL SANDERS (1860) 

1) HEIMLICH - HOMELIKE, FRIENDLY, SECURE 

2) HEIMLICH = CONCEALED, SECRET 

UNHEIMLICH - EASY, EERIE 

GRIMM'S DICTIONARY 

6 - HEIMLICH = MYSTIC KNOWLEDGE 

9 - SOMETHING HIDDEN OR DANGEROUS 

COMES TO HAVE MEANING ASCRIBED TO HEIMLICH 

SCHELLING 

UNHEIMLICH = OUGHT TO HAVE REMAINED SECRET 

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DERRIDA - DECONSTRUCTIONISM

CLASSICAL THINKING:

STRUCT GIVES LANG A CENTRE TO ORIENT 

IT ALLOWS FOR A SYSTEM FOR FREEPLAY AND STOPS FREEPLAY - THOUGHT OF A UNIQUE CENTRE - IMMOBILITY 

CENTRE IS AT THE CENTRE OF TOTALITY BUT ISN'T TOTALITY'S CENTRE - THATS ELSEWHERE 

REPETITIONS ARE TAKEN FROM A HISTORY OF MEANING 

RAPTURE 

CENTRE TRANSPORTED TO SURROGATE (DIFFERENCE?)  - SURROGATE IS NEW - THEREFORE NO NATURAL LOCUS 

SIGNIFIED ONLY PRESENT IN DIFFERANCE - A TRANSCENDENTAL SIGNIFIED = INFINATE INTERPLAY 

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DECONSTRUCTIONISM (DECENTRING)

CITED BY DERRIDA AS CAUSES

NIETZSCH 

DECENTRING OF METAPHYSICS 

FREUD 

DECENTERING OF SELF

HEIDEGGER 

DECENTERING OF ONTO-THEO (PRESENCE) 

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DECON - DERRIDA & METAPHYSICS

CANNOT DECONSTRUCT METAPHYSICS BCOS ALL OF OUR LANGUAGE IS IN THE SYSTEM 

E.G. LEVI STRAUSS CANNOT PLACE HIMSELF @ BEGINNINGS OF SIGNS TO BE 'SENSIBLE AND INTELLIGIBLE' BCOS THEY IN THE SYSTEM 

BUT WE CANNOT GIVE UP THE SIGN WITHOUT GIVING UP CRITICISM - IT DOES THIS: 

2 WAYS TO ERASE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SIGNIFIER AND SIGNIFIED: 

1) REDUCING ER - SIGN TO THOUGHT 

2) QUESTIONING THE SYSTEM THAT PERFORMED ABOVE - "THE OPPOSITION IS PART OF THE SYSTEM"

FORMAL SCHEMA OF STRUCT - ETHNOLOGY (PEOPLES) - IT IS A CRITICISM FROM WITHIN THE SYSTEM - UNAVOIDABLE 

LEVI-STRAUSS - NATURE AND CULTURE - THE INCEST-PROHIBITION 

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DECON - LEVI STRAUS' TECHNIQUE OF CRITIQUE

"LANGUAGE BEARS WITHIN ITSELF ITS OWN CRITIQUE" - DOUBLE INTENTION

1) QUESTION THE HISTORY OF CONCEPTS

2) USE CONCEPTS AS FLAWED TOOLS 

BRICOLAGE 

- WHEN WE REALISE EVERYTHING IS BRIC THE DIFFERENCE THAT DEFINES IT DECOMPOSES BRIC 

THE MYTHOPOETICAL POWER OF BRICOLAGE CAUSES "THE ABANDONEMENT OF ALL REFERENCES TO A CENTRE"

  • THE RAW AND THE COOKED - BORORO MYTH 
  • SECOND ORDER CODE 

DESIRE FOR CENTRE = MYTH 

L-S EASY TO CRITICISE BCOS OF EMPIRICALISM 

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MARXISM - ADORNO & HORKHEIMER

IDEOLOGY 

ALTUSSER'S I/RSA  - MANIPULATION AND RETROACTIVE NEED 

TECH & STANDARDISATION ("DUMBED DOWN") - CONTROL OF INDIVIDUAL CONSCIOUSNESS . PRODUCERS - ORGANISATION FROM ABOVE - NO SPONTANEITY OR DIFFER FROM RULES - READY MADE CLICHES - STAR APPEAL AND SFX OVER QUALITY

FINANCIAL > ARTISTIC, CULTURAL MONOPOLIES > CONGLORERATES 

CLAIMS OF SATISFICATION = HOT AIR 

CATEGORY TURNED OUT FOR TYPE - ACCEPT 

TV = GESAMTKINSTWERK = "TRIUMPT OF INVESTED CAPITAL" 

ROBS INDIVID OF FUNCTION - COMMERCIAL AGENCIES = IMPRESSION OF COMMAND 

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MARXISM - ROMANTICISM/EXPRESSIONISM

THESE ART MOVEMENTS = DETAIL = FREE EXPRESSION AND PROTEST (THINK MODERNISM) 

WHOLE WORLD MADE  TO PASS THROUGH MEDIA FILTER 

- HYPERREALITY AND PASSIVE AUDIENCES = NO QUESTIONING (JARGON OF MEDIA NORMALISED)

LATE CAPITALIST MEDIA = SAME AMOUNT OF WORK AS HIGH ART 

CULTURE INDUSTRY  = NEGATION OF STYLE - "DOMINANT FORMS OF GENERALITY"

INFERIOR WORK - RELIES ON SIMILARITY 

OCCUPYING SENSES LEAVING AND RETURNING FACTORY 

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MARXISM - NO RESISTANCE

STRAYING FROM FORMULA = CONFIRMS VALIDITY OF SYSTEM 

BRAND OF DEVIATION ABSORBED BY MEDIA, BELONGS, EXCLUSION OF THE NEW 

THE LAG AND PLACES FREE - RESISTENCE 

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MARXISM - LOW VS HIGH

LIGHT ART = DISTRACTION - NO ACCESS TO BOUG CULTURE 

ESCAPISM DOESNT WORK - AFTER IMAGES OF WORK - MECHANISATION - BORDOM 

ENJOYMENT OF VIOLENCE TO CHARA = VIOLENCE TO VIEWER 

PROMISES SPECTACLE, DOES NOT DELIEVER 

FUN IS A MEDICINAL BATH 

LAUGH = DERIDE, LAUGHTER = FRAUD OF HAPPINESS - LAUGH AND BE CONTENT WITH LAUGHTER 

EROTICISM AND FREUDIAN CASTRATION 

PLEASURE PROMOTS RESIGNATION 

ADVERTISING = ELIXIR OF LIFE - POWER IN SAME HANDS, REP OF SOCIAL POWER, GOEBBELS 

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MORRETTI - GLOBAL LIT

GOETHE 1827 - BEGINNING - WELTLITETUR 

COMP LIT = EUROPEAN 

READING MORE NOT SOLUTION - COHEN - GREAT UNREAD 

HYPOTHESIS OF NEW METHOD - G LIT = ONE & UNEQUAL - PERIPHERY CULTURE ALTERED BY CORE THAT IGNORES .... SO DISTANT READING??!!

CLOSE READING = SMALL CANON = SMALL BOOKS THAT MATTER

D READING = LARGER UNITS (THEMES, TROPES) - TEXT DISAPEARS 

CASE STUDY OF THE NOVEL AS COMPROMISE 

EXPERIEMENTS - WATCH METAMORPHESIS - LONG CHAIN 

(JAMESON'S FUNDEMENTAL BINARY & SCWARZ'S FOREIGN DEBT) 

TREE VS WAVE 

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STUART HALL - RACE

THOMPSON - FINAL COLONY OF BRITAIN = BRITAIN 

OLD LOGIC OF ID - NOTION OF TRUE SELF - IMPOSSIBLE BCOS OF DECENTERING (MARX = NO CHOICE, FREUD = UNCONSCIOUS, SAUSSURE = LANGUAGE THERE BEFORE) + DISPLACEMENT OF WESTERN NARRATIVE AND MALE GAZE - THIS IS MODERNITY 

EROSION OF "HOMGENIOUS" SOCIAL IDS

ID IS GENERATED THROUGH SPLITTING INTO OTHER - FROM PLACE ONE STANDS 

FANON - "LOOK MAMA, A BLACK MAN" - TWO HISTORIES - POSSIBLE IN GLOBALISED WORLD?

HALL - SUGAR/TEA - ID = PEOPLE THE SAME = WRONG - FROM OTHER - AS A NARRATIVE 

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STUART HALL - RACE - POLITICS

POLITICS OF LOCAL TO BEAT OVERIDING GLOBAL? NO - BUT SOME 

BLACK DIASPORA IN UK - WINDRUSH 

GEN 1 THOUGHT THEY WERE GOING HOME - WHEN THEY STAYED, POLITICS OF RACISM ROSE, CAUSING ID POLITICS 1

  • DEFENSIVE COLLECTIVE IDENTITY 
  • REDISCOVERY OF ROOTS
  • THIS HOW THE MARGINS BEGIN TO SPEAK

START OF THE "BLACK" ID - NOT HEARD IN JAMACIA DESPITE STRAT - SELF RECOGNITION - BOB MARLEY - MUM & IMMIGRANTS - NOT TALKING ABOUT YOUR PAINT BOX -  FAKE MULTICULTURALISM 

MORE UNITES US THAN DIVIDES US (POC) - BUT BLACK SILENCES (ASIAN, GENDER, OUTSIDERS) 

ENGLISHNESS IS BLACK (3 GEN = ALL 3)

MY BEAUTIFUL LAUNDRETTE 

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LOOMBA - EMPIRE - WHAT IS?

STUDIES = REVOLUTION 

FORCIBLE TAKE OVER - NON CAPITALIST TO FUEL OWN CAPITALISM (PREVIOUSLY A TRANSHISTORICAL IMPULSE TO CONQUER) 

COLONIALISM LEADS TO COMMUNISM? EXPLOITIVE BUT NECESSARY? MARX - ENGLAND = UNCONSCIOUS TOOL BRINGING ABOUT REVOLUTION 

COLONIALISM = SCIENCE > SUPERSTITION 

BRITISH EDU DISPATCH (1854, INDIA) - TEACH MARVELLOUS RESULTS OF EMPLOYMENT OF LABOUR AND CAPITAL 

MARX - COMMODIES STAND IN FOR HUMAN. CESAIRE - THINGIFICATION 

HAVES & HAVE NOT = RACE. FANON - BELONGING TO GROUPS BCOS OF RACE (RICH, POOR) - BUT RACIST W WC? 

CESAIRE - PRIOR, AFRICA WAS COMMUNAL ETC 

FANON - INFERIORITY COMPLEX - TACKLE ECONOMIC AND PSYCHOLOGICAL

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LOOMBA - EMPIRE - GENDER

GENDERBLIND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 

WOMEN'S OPPRESSION UNDER THEORISED BY MARX 

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LOOMBA - EMPIRE - IDEOLOGY 1

THE GERMAN IDEOLOGY, MARX & ENGELS - FALSE CON - CAMERA OBSCURA = OBJUSCATION & MISREO

REALITY = IDOELOGICAL - MONEY FOR VALUES - CAN YOU SEE TRUTH? SCIENCE

GEORG LUKAC - CLASS SITCH = BOUG - DISTORTED VIEW OF CAP, PRO = REAL - COGNITIVE SUPERIORITY (BUT DIFFERENT PEOPLE OF THE SAME CLASS SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY?) 

VOLOSINOV - ACCENTS 

GRAMSCI - FAILED REVOLUTION - ECONOMICS ONLY CREATE CONDITIONS - IDEOLOGY = SOCIAL COHESION - DUAL CONSCIOUSNESS = RESISTANCE 

IDEOLOGY COME TO BE BELIEVED IN - MACHIAVELLI POWER VIA FORCE AND FRUAD - IDEOLOGY PLAYS ON COMMON SENSE 

STUART HALL - RACES & GROUPS IN ONE SYSTEM, RACISM INTERTWINED WITH CAPITALISM, NOT AN EFFECT 

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LOOMBA - EMPIRE - IDEOLOGY 2

ERROL LAWRENCE (USED GRAM) - POST WAR BRITAIN, RACISM = COMMON SENSE 

NOT EVEN MOST REPRESSIVE HAVE CONSENT OF ALL

ALTHUSSER - INTERNALISED IDEOLOGY - FREUD = INTERPELLATED, IDEOLOGY OF APPAR - LACAN = POSITIONED - PERSONHOOD = FORMED IN IDEOLOGY (STRUCTURE OF MISRECOGNITION). LACAN - SUBJECT FORMATION VIA LANGUAGE 

RELATIVE AUTONOMY FROM MATERIAL BASE - THEORY FAILS TO MAINTAIN DISTINCTION BETWEEN REP/LANG/CUL & MATERIAL/ECONOMIC 

FOUCAULT - NO DISTINCT - LAWS OF CERTAIN CODES OF KNOWLEDGE - NO UTTERANCE UNDERTERMINSED (STRUCTURALISM) - DEATH OF THE AUTHOR (BARTHES) 

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LOOMBA - EMPIRE - STRUCT/DECON

SAUSSURE - ARBITARY er/ed - PRINCIPLE OF EXCLUSION 

SOCIAL GROUPS MAKE SIGNS = IDEOLOGICAL 

MACHEREY - NO SYSTEM THAT WILL WORK EVERYWHERE ALWAYS - IMPLIES TEXTS HAVE MEANINGS BEFORE WRITTEN 

  • TEXTS ONLY UNDERSTOOD IN CONTEXT OF UTTERANCE - DETERMINATE CONDITIONS 

(DERRIDA) - DIFFERANCE IN CONTEXT OF COLONIALISM 

ALL THEORISTS HERE = ARGAINST HUMANIST INTRINSIC ORIGIN OF MEANING, IDEOLOGY/SOCIAL PRACTISE = CONNECTED, CONSIDER OPPRESSION, CHALLENGE RIGID ACCOUNTS OF EVENTS

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LOOMBA - EMPIRE - DISCOURSE

FOUCAULT (USED BY SAID) - MATERIAN MEDIUM - MADNESS STUDY - CATEGORY PRODUCED - SYSTEMS = ORDER OF DISCOURSE = TERRITORY ON WHICH KNOWLEDGE PRODUCED. DISCOURSE = DOMAIN IN WHICH LANG USED IN PARTICULAR WAYS ROOTED IN PRACTISES AND INSTITUTIONS

DISCURSIVE PRACTISES - DIFFICULT TO THINK OUTSIDE 

CONTRADICT ITSELF - BUT SAME CONCEPTUAL ORDER - E.G. BURNING WIDOWS. HAYDEN WHITE - DISCOURSE CONSTITUTES WHAT WILL BE FACT AND THE MODE OF COMPREHENSION BEST 

NOTION OF HISTORICAL, EVERYTHING - NOT UTTERANCE IS INNOCENT!! - HISTORY & TEXTUAL MEANING - FACT AND FICTION BLURRED 

FEMINIST AND ANTI C CHALLENGES, POST STRUCT = SKEPTICAL - META NARRATIVES - DECENTRALISE THE HUMAN SUBJECT 

FOUCAULT DENIES HIMSELF POLITICS - PROTO-ANARCHISM (HALL) - POWER IS EVERYWHERE SO NOWHERE - HARTSOCK - POSSIBLE TO THINK ABOUT CHALLENGE?

SAID - CRITICAL THEORY IGNORES IMPERIALISM.

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STRUCTURALISM - SAUSSURE AND BARTHES

SIGNIFER + SIGNIFIED = SIGN (SAUSSURE) = MYTH (BARTHES) 

NEVER COMPLETE REPRESENTATION 

LANGUAGE IS SYCHRONIC NOT DIACHRONIC (S) 

PARADIGMATIC AND SYNTAGMATIC AXIS (S) 

DIFFERENCES (S)

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