BEOWULF COMMENTARY

HAPAX LEGOMENA (1)

1.Sceadugenga: shadow walker

2.Hornreced: gabled-hall

3.Scynscaþa: hostile-ravager

4.Goldsele: gold hall

5.Healðegnas: hall thanes

6.Fyrbendum: fire bonds

7.Bealohydig: hostile minded

8.Unfæger: unlovely

9.Wistfylle: full of feasting

10.þryðswyð: strong in might

11.Færgripum: sudden grip

12.Synsnædum: sin gobbets

13.ætstop: stepped forth

14.Higeþihtigne: bold in spirit

15.Mundgripe: hand grip

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HAPAX LEGOMENA (2)

1.Ealderdagum: life days

2.æfenspræce: evening speech

3.Fenhopu: fen-refuge

4.Hearmscaþa: harm-ravager

5.Dryhtsele: noble hall

6.Ceasterbuendum: city-dweller

7.Ealuscerwan: Ale sharing

8.Renweardas: hall guardians

9.Tirleases: deprived of glory

10.Trode: footprint

11.Feorhlastas: mortal-tracks

12.Heorodreore: battle-gore

13.Deaðfæge: fated to die

14.Gomenwaþe: joyful journey

15.Oncyþðe: grief

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HAPAX LEGOMENA (3)

1.Inwidsorge: evil sorrow

2.Gifhealle: gift-hall

3.Sigewæpnum: victory-weapon

4.Ellorgast: spirit of elsewhere

5.Syndolh: grievous wound

6.Guðhreð: battle-victory

7.Feorhseoc: life-sick

8.Fenhleoðu:fen-slopes

9.Foldbold:dwelling place

10.Banfag: bone adorned

11.Heardhicgende: resolutely thinking

12.Hildemecgas: warriors

13.Wælræse: rush of slaughter

14.Nihtweorce: night-work

15.Ellenmærþum: heroic deeds

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HAPAX LEGOMENA (4)

1.Eormengrund: spacious ground

2.Rondhæbbendra: shield-carriers

3.Ealdgesengena: old tradition

4.Nydgesteallan: companion at need

5.Beahhordes: ring-hoard

MOST DENSE HL SECTION: 759-780--> Grasping of Grendel's arm by Beowulf

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Series of Events

702a-722: 

Com on wanre niht : in the dark night he came

Sy(th)(th)an he hire folmum (aet)hran: when his fingers touched it

Approach of Grendel to Heorot, ends with the start of an envelope pattern

- Bell-like repetition of 'com', humanisation of Grendel with every repetition

- Parallels with Beowulf: 'anum' (line 888), ambiguous pronouns, bolgenmod (capacity for interiority)- parallels to B and later line 723

- Concept of the 'metod': intrusion of poet, explanation of warriors' ease/sleep

- Sceadu-- oppositions of shadow and light (ambiguity of 'bearing' God's anger)

- Consistent Type A Sievers-- trudging, as with the 2nd COM we move back exterior

- 713- physical sense of the hall, and comitatus relationship/traditions, double alliteration

- Ambiguous syntax and lexis- 'rinc'- and conflict between monstrous and human

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Series of Events 2

723-743

Onbr(ae)d (th)a bealohydig, (th)a he gebolgen w(ae)s: bloody-minded, swollen with rage, he swing open

synsn(ae)dum swealh; sona h(ae)fde: gobbled his flesh in sin gobbets, and soon

- Thematics: parody of homosocial bonds/bodily fragmentation/interiority vs exteriority

- Anthropomorphisation of the Hall: 'recedes mu(th)an', sexual/emasculating penetration of safety

- fagne flor: assonance, Roman associations--> longevity vs AS temporary construction

- Litotes: unf(ae)ger, monstrosity

- 728: 3 pt object, variational repetition to emphasise the number of warriors

- Negative constructions, w/ dramatic irony 

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