Phonology, Voice and Use of Language:
aspiration - /p/ /t/ /k/ these are initial voiceless plosives, so they are aspirated in speech.
cohesion - Links sentences into a sequence logically, often written. Use of expressions such as therefore, then, finally, etc. to help link it together and flow naturally like native speech.
collocate - Can be found with another lexical term often e.g. cosmetic surgery, crystal clear
competence - Knowledge of grammatical and other rules of language
Error VS. Mistake - Errors are caused by genuine lack of knowledge (relates to competence). Mistakes are simply misuse on the spot which the student can correct themselves often. (Performance errors)
form - Words written or sounds spoken (structure) used to express something (not meaning/use).
function - Purpose. What the student is hoping to do by using language e.g. a suggestion
intonation - The rise and fall in pitch, related to stress. e.g. to show a question
overgeneralization - Applying a rule beyond the extent to which it applies e.g. goed
paradigm - Grammatical forms which must be learned off by heart because they are basic forms with unexpected (irregular) outcomes
Teaching Materials/Useful Devices:
Authentic - Samples of the language that are actually real, not constructed for language learning specifically - Often written or recorded samples
Cue - Verbal, Visual, Numerical, Mimed, Sound Effects - A device which elicits a response. Used in drilling.
Dialogue Frame - The skeleton/template of a dialogue in which new words/phrases can be added. Can be controlled like a substitution drill or free like an open-ended genuine-sounding Student to Student conversation
Distractors - Incorrect choices put into a multiple choice set to show whether the learners will be swayed or not (the level of study they are at)
Error Prevention - This is the idea that students will learn better by being rewarded for their correct usage of language rather than focus on punishing incorrect usage. The student should be provided with plenty of support so that they stand a good chance of getting the correct answer (because they have learned all the appropriate information already).
Extensive Reading vs Intensive Reading - Extensive is reading for information or pleasure rather than focusing on every new word/new phrase that has not yet been taught. Intensive is reading in depth for comprehension and analysing.
Flashcards - Teaching visual aids. Can contain pictures as well as words.
Global questions - Comprehension questions requiring an understanding gained by reading the entire text and generally knowing what it is about
Grading - Arranging language items into course materials in the best way to maximize learning
Group Work - Three or more students work together on a task or set of tasks.
Pair Work - Gives more of an opportunity for students to talk. Usually an extension of drilling.
Information Gap task - Two or more students have different information. They must ask each other for information in English in order to fill in their table/sheet.
Key - the correct choice in a…