- Created by: aymanallaouat
- Created on: 14-01-20 15:19
What is criminology?
- The study of crime and criminal justice systems.
- Investigates the causes of crime.
-Looks at why certain acts are classed as 'crimes', and how this reflects on the societey around it.
What are the different schools of criminology?
-The Italian School
What is The Italian School?
-The very first school of criminology, origionating in the early 1800s.
-The ideas of Cesare Lombroso.
-Suggested crime was down to biology, and people who commit crimes are predetermined to do this.
-Didn't consider any other factors to an individual's life e.g. enviromental factors.
-Pioneered the use of scientific techniques when looking at crime, thus making criminology as scientific subject.
What is socially-orientated positivism?
-Response to IS. Argues that the social enviroment surrounding someone may be the main reason if they commit crimes or not.
-Emile Durkhiem was the founder of this school.
-Investigates why we class certian things as 'crimes' and why this changes throughout time. e.g. How criminal law as become less strict.
-The 'conscience collective' - The morals and values that a society shares, basic ideas of what is right and wrong. The criminal laws this societey makes will reflect these values.
-Functionalism - The view that crime can be useful as it can change or maintain the conscience collective.
What is the Marxist school?
-Developed in the late 1800s by Karl Marx.
-Consisted of the ideas of the Base and Superstructure:
- Base - The separation of social groups into classes designated by their different roles in industrial production.
- Superstructure - Things that maintain these divisions. e.g. religion, race, culture, sport and media.
-The Lumpenprolatariate - The 'Lower prolatariate', or the poorest in society. This is where the majority of what capitalist society views as a 'crime' occurs.
-Suggests that criminal law is created by the bourgeoisie to protect their interests and isolate the prolatariate, and that it is not a true reflection what a society actually considers criminal.