The determination of the elite and the autonomy of the state have helped shape the powerful, professional, competent, career-based bureaucracies with authority to direct and manage the shape of the economic and social development.
MITI- Japan – ideal example – located in all developmental states – Ministry of Finance, etc.
These are different than other planning institutions is the fact that their real power, authority, technical competence and insulation of shaping the fundamental thrusts of development policy.
Latin America – Under authoritarian rule, but has absence of power and authority/too many bureaucratic appointments – limited development capacity. Clash of class forces and organisations. Absence of real rural elite influence from formation of state policy separates them from successful states.
Need the presence of a strong, autonomous, determined, dynamic planner to push model like East Asia.
Liberalisation and democracy has caused a decline in power of the developmental state although authoritative gov’t was needed at the height of the developmental trajectories.
There have been efforts to re-empower the bureaucratic institutions.